Ethiopia

F
Ethiopia

This country's score has stayed the same since 2014. 

Recognition of animal sentience and prohibition of animal suffering

Recognition of animal sentience and prohibition of animal suffering

This goal assesses whether animal sentience has been recognised in legislation and explores the core legislative protections granted to animals, such as the prohibition of animal cruelty.

D

Animal Sentience is formally recognised in legislation

The Government has not developed any policy or legislation by which sentience is acknowledged or recognised either expressly or by implication.

Article 822 in the Criminal Code Proclamation No. 414/2004 states that in a public place, or a place open to the public or which can be viewed by the public, it is an offence to commit acts of cruelty towards animals or inflict upon them ill-treatment, revolting violence or brutality. It is also an offence to organise shows or entertainments in which animals are treated with cruelty, are mutilated or killed (whether it be fights between animals or with animals), shooting of captive animals, or other offences of a similar kind. The term ‘animal’ is not defined in the Criminal Code, and therefore could extend to all animals including fish and invertebrates.

Analysis

There is no formal evidence or signal from the Government to recognise animal sentience as an independent issue. Animal sentience does not currently inform public policies that could be potentially linked to animals (such as environmental or sustainable production policies). The Government has not yet incorporated current practical experience and scientific knowledge regarding animal sentience into the country’s legislation, despite Ethiopia being a member of the OIE, which has guiding principles on animal welfare that are based on the premise that animals are sentient beings. 

The Criminal Code recognises the capacity of animals to experience physical pain, however, there is no recognition of psychological suffering. The scope of application of the Code is also unclear, since the term ‘animal’ is not defined.

Enforcement mechanisms

Breach of the prohibition on organising shows involving cruelty to animals, or committing cruelty to animals in a public place, is punishable with a fine or arrest (Article 822 Criminal Code).

Key recommendations

Given the extensive body of scientific evidence proving that animals are sentient, the Government of Ethiopia is urged to recognise that all animals for whom there is scientific evidence – at a minimum, all vertebrates, cephalopods and decapods crustaceans – are sentient beings and to enshrine this principle into legislation. Recognising animals as sentient will underpin further animal welfare considerations.

• The Government of Ethiopia is strongly encouraged to clarify the scope of application of its Criminal Code to ensure it applies to all animals recognised as sentient, including all vertebrates, cephalopods and decapod crustaceans.

D

Laws against causing animal suffering

There is no legislation dedicated to animal welfare in Ethiopia.

Article 822 in the Criminal Code Proclamation No. 414/2004 states that in a public place, or a place open to the public or which can be viewed by the public, it is an offence to commit acts of cruelty towards animals or inflict upon them ill-treatment, revolting violence or brutality. It is also an offence to organise shows or entertainments in which animals are treated with cruelty, are mutilated or killed (whether it be fights between animals or with animals), shooting of captive animals or other offences of a similar kind. The term ‘animal’ is not defined in the Criminal Code, and therefore could extend to all animals including fish and invertebrates.

Analysis

The existing legislation (Article 822 Criminal Code) presents a basic level of protection whereby animals are only protected from human-inflicted suffering that is carried out in public. There is no protection relating to conduct in private or for negligent behaviour. Furthermore, the Criminal Code recognises the capacity of animals to experience physical pain, however, there is no recognition of psychological suffering. The scope of application of the Code is also unclear, since the term ‘animal’ is not defined.

Enforcement mechanisms

Breach of the prohibition on organising shows involving cruelty to animals, or committing cruelty to animals in a public place, is punishable with a fine or arrest (Article 822 Criminal Code).

Key recommendations

• Article 822 of the Criminal Code prohibits abuse and cruelty to animals, but this does not extend to animal suffering caused by a failure to act. Therefore, the Government of Ethiopia is strongly encouraged to amend Article 822 of the Criminal Code as to include acts of negligence in the definition of animal cruelty.

• Furthermore, the Government of Ethiopia is strongly encouraged to clarify the scope of application of its Criminal Code to ensure it applies to all animals recognised as sentient, including all vertebrates, cephalopods and decapod crustaceans.

Presence of animal welfare legislation

Presence of animal welfare legislation

This goal explores animal protection laws in relation to various categories of animals, namely: farm animals, animals in captivity, companion animals, working animals and animals used for entertainment, animals used for scientific research and wild animals.

G

Protecting animals used in farming

Rearing

The basic provisions against public displays of cruelty, contained in Article 822 of the Criminal Code, apply to farm animals. Article 515 of the Criminal Code Proclamation No. 414/2004 includes further animal health protection regarding the intentional spread of animal diseases, including among domestic animals or poultry.

It is understood that the Animal Diseases Prevention and Control Proclamation No. 267/2002 is concerned with the prevention and control of animal diseases, movement of animals, animal products and by-products, and registration of animal health professionals, but that this does not contain any specific welfare considerations.

Rearing – pigs

No legislation has been found specifically relating to the rearing of pigs.

Rearing – broiler chickens

No legislation has been found specifically relating to the rearing of broiler chickens.

Rearing – egg-laying hens

No legislation has been found specifically relating to the rearing of egg-laying hens.

Rearing – dairy cattle and calves

No legislation has been found specifically relating to the rearing of dairy cattle and calves.

Transport

No legislation has been found specifically relating to the transport of animals.

Slaughter

No legislation has been found specifically relating to the slaughter of animals.

Analysis

The stated intention of the Animal Diseases Prevention and Control Proclamation 267/2002 is to maximise the benefits derived from livestock resources. Protecting animal health through prohibiting the intentional spread of disease is also the goal of Article 515 of the Criminal Code. It is acknowledged that preserving animal health contributes to enhancing animal welfare; however, there is no indication that the protective measures in the existing legislation explicitly refer or acknowledge animal welfare. There appears to be a lack of species-specific legislation with regards to the rearing, transport and slaughter of farm animals.

The Government has put into place a network of Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs), which has been part of the government-certified national animal health service delivery system since 2004. In 2009, a national CAHW training manual, a training of CAHW trainers manual, and minimum standards and guidelines for CAHW services were produced by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. However, the community-based animal health unit was closed when the Ministry of Agriculture became a State Ministry, and the establishment of a veterinary statutory body, as mentioned in Proclamation 267/2002, has not yet occurred.

Enforcement mechanisms

Breach of the prohibition on organising shows involving cruelty to animals, or committing cruelty to animals in a public place, is punishable with a fine or arrest (Article 822 Criminal Code). Article 515 of the Criminal Code also states that whoever intentionally spreads an animal disease among domestic animals or poultry is punishable with ‘simple imprisonment or fine’.

However, seeing the lack of species-specific legislation surrounding the rearing, transport and slaughter of farm animals, there is a lack of enforcement mechanisms for this category of animals.

Key recommendations

• At present, the welfare of farm animals is only addressed through the lens of animal health. However, animal health is only one component of animal welfare. The Government of Ethiopia is urged to enact legislation detailing specific welfare requirements for farm animals during the phases of rearing, transport and slaughter. Such requirements should be legally binding and species-specific. Regular inspections onto farms and slaughter establishments should be carried out with a special focus on animal welfare.

• In addition, the Government of Ethiopia is urged to ban the worst forms of confinement for farm animals. In particular, the use of farrowing crates, sow stalls, and cages should be banned. The stocking density of broiler chickens should also be reduced to a maximum of 30 kg/m2 or lower. Surgical operations, such as piglet mutilations and beak trimming for egg-laying hens, shall not be performed except under anaesthesia and with analgesics.

• The Government of Ethiopia is urged to mandate the humane slaughter of all farm animals. Animals should be instantaneously rendered unconscious and insensible to pain and distress prior to slaughter. Today, there is growing consensus amongst religious authorities worldwide that pre-slaughter stunning is compatible with religious principles. Humane halal slaughter allows for the animal to be temporarily rendered unconscious via stunning prior to slaughter, as long as the animal's skull remains intact and the animal would regain consciousness in time should slaughter not occur. Therefore, animals should be unconscious before being bled, and no further processing should occur until irreversible loss of consciousness is confirmed. No animal should be forced to witness other animals being slaughtered as this is inherently distressing.

• Legislation regarding the transport of animals should protect their Five Freedoms. Due to the significant animal welfare concerns associated with long distance transport, the Government of Ethiopia is strongly urged to ban the export of live animals for long distances (i.e. over than eight hours) and replace it with a meat only trade. Long distance transport is inherently cruel as it involves chronic stress for all animals and, for some species and modes of transport, it may involve overpopulation, exhaustion, excess heat or cold, inadequate ventilation and/or access to food and water, leading to disease, pain, injury or death.

F

Protecting animals in captivity

Zoos

Article 822 of the Criminal Code applies to animals kept in zoos, since it prohibits cruelty acts to be committed towards animals in a public place. Furthermore, it prohibits the organisation of ‘shows or entertainments in which animals are treated with cruelty, are mutilated or killed’, which includes the shooting of captive animals or other offences of a similar kind.

However, no legislation has been found specifically relating to zoos. In particular, no legislation has been found requiring zoos to obtain a licence to operate.

Private keeping of wild animals

No legislation has been found specifically relating to the private keeping of animals.

Fur farming

No legislation has been found specifically relating to fur farming.

Analysis

There is no evidence that the Government has acknowledged that animals in captivity face specific welfare challenges. In particular, it is regrettable that there is no licence scheme for zoos to operate, whereby only facilities achieving certain criteria in terms of animal welfare could be authorised to be established as a zoo.

There is also a lack of legislation with regards to the private keeping of wild animals.

There is furthermore a lack of legislation with regards to fur farming. Fur farming is inherently cruel for animals and should be therefore outlawed. 

Enforcement mechanisms

Breach of the prohibition on organising shows involving cruelty to animals, or committing cruelty to animals in a public place, is punishable with a fine or arrest (Article 822 Criminal Code).

However, since no legislation has been found on the private keeping of wild animals or animals used in fur farming, there are no enforcement mechanisms associated with these categories of animals.

Key recommendations

• The Criminal Code punishes cruelty towards animals in a public place, as well as animal fights or other entertainment events in which animals are treated with cruelty, including the shooting of captive animals. Ethiopian legislation could be improved by addressing the species-specific welfare needs of animals kept in captive settings, such as zoos. As a result, the Government of Ethiopia is urged to produce detailed legislation specifying the conditions under which wild animals may be kept in captivity. Such regulations shall include requirements with regards to housing, feeding, handling and husbandry and should promote the Five Freedoms of all individual animals. In particular, the Freedom to express normal patterns of behaviours should be respected.

• The Government of Ethiopia is encouraged to develop a Positive List of species, specifying which animals can be kept as companion animals, based on clear criteria including animal welfare and other relevant concerns.

• The Government of Ethiopia is urged to fully ban fur farming. Fur farming is inherently cruel and causes pain, distress and suffering to animals. 

G

Protecting companion animals

Care of companion animals

The basic provisions against public displays of cruelty, contained in Article 822 of the Criminal Code, apply to companion animals.

However, no policy or legislation has been found that specifically protects companion animals. There is no evidence of legal provisions protecting animals in the private sphere.

Stray animals

No legislation has been found specifically relating to stray animals.

Analysis

The Government has not introduced any legislation aimed at protecting the welfare of companion animals. There is a lack of duty of care of animal owners onto their animals. There is also a lack of legislative provisions mandating the humane treatment of stray animals, and dog vaccinations against rabies. 

Enforcement mechanisms

Breach of the prohibition on organising shows involving cruelty to animals, or committing cruelty to animals in a public place, is punishable with a fine or arrest (Article 822 Criminal Code).

Key recommendations

• The Government of Ethiopia is urged to enact an animal welfare act, which should include a duty of care of animal owners onto their companion animals. Animal owners should protect the Five Freedoms of their animals. The Government should also promote responsible pet ownership, with encouraging adoption over the purchase of companion animals.

• The Government of Ethiopia is strongly encouraged to promote humane dog population management, which relies on promoting responsible ownership, mass dog vaccinations and reproduction control programmes. Culling is unnecessary, cruel and has been scientifically proven to be ineffective. The Government of Algeria should also implement education programmes on dog bite prevention.

• The Government of Ethiopia is encouraged to engage with the International Companion Animal Management (ICAM) coalition to learn about and implement their dog population management methodology. This methodology consists of a full cycle of action, addressing the root causes of conflict between roaming dog and communities. The document is helpful to governments to manage dogs humanely as well as to help communities to live in harmony with dogs.

F

Protecting animals used for draught and recreation

Animals used for entertainment

The basic provisions against public displays of cruelty, contained in Article 822 of the Criminal Code, apply to animals used for entertainment. This includes the prohibition against organising shows or entertainments in which animals are treated with cruelty, are mutilated or killed (whether it be fights between animals or with animals), shooting of captive animals, or other offences of a similar kind.

No other legislation has been found specifically addressing the welfare of animals used for entertainment purposes.

Draught animals

There are by-laws in the Halaba Region that allows the euthanasia of working horses when they suffer from extreme injuries or diseases that cannot be solved. Apart from this, no legislation has been found specifically relating to draught animals.

Analysis

It is positive that the Criminal Code (Article 822) prohibits activities associated with animal fighting and other entertainment events causing animal suffering. However, there is no detailed definition of which entertainment events would be considered cruel or of a ‘similar kind’ to animal fights.

Overall existing legislation does not sufficiently acknowledge the challenges of animals used for draught and recreational purposes. The lack of policy and legislative developments specifically on the issue of draught animals leaves numerous animals outside the sphere of legal protection, as the use of horses and donkeys for draught purposes is very common in the country. A number of NGOs are working in the country, in partnership with the Government and government veterinary services, to address the welfare of working equine animals, and this has served to improve the welfare of many animals and to increase awareness of animal owners. It is positive that The Brooke has worked with the Government in Halaba to try to avoid prolonged suffering for abandoned working horses. However, no legislation has been found protecting the Five Freedoms of animals used for draught.

Enforcement mechanisms

Breach of the prohibition on organising shows involving cruelty to animals, or committing cruelty to animals in a public place, is punishable with a fine or arrest (Article 822 Criminal Code). It appears that there are no policy instruments to help people care for their animals or any incentives to assist with enforcing the Criminal Code.

Furthermore, as no legislation has been found on draught animals, there are no enforcement mechanisms associated with this category of animals.

Key recommendations

• Building upon the general ban contained in the Criminal Code on animal fights and entertainment events during which animals are treated with cruelty, the Government of Ethiopia is urged to define more clearly which entertainment events are covered in this prohibition. Such a prohibition should cover circuses, rodeos, animal races, rides on wild animals and all other forms of entertainment. Notably, the Government is strongly encouraged to ban the use of all animals in circuses. Phasing out the use of animals for entertainment purposes could start with a ban on the use of wild animals for such performances.

• The Government of Ethiopia is strongly encouraged to adopt specific legislation to address the welfare of working animals, including working equids, following the requirements of the OIE’s animal welfare standards (Chapter 7.12). Working animals must be treated with consideration and must be given adequate shelter, exercise, care, food and water appropriate to their physiological and behavioural needs. Any condition that may impair their welfare must be treated promptly and, affected animals must not be worked again until they are fit. They must not be overworked or overloaded, nor must they be forced to work through ill-treatment.

G

Protecting animals used in scientific research

No legislation has been found specifically relating to animals used for scientific research.

Analysis

There are no guidelines on animals used in scientific research for this country, including educational, cosmetic or other forms of surgical or invasive manipulation. It appears that there has been no attempt made to regulate the use of animals in research, falling behind international trends and animal welfare standards. None of the Three Rs principles – Replacement, Reduction, Refinement – are enshrined in legislation. There is also no restriction on animal testing for cosmetic products. Furthermore, there is no indication or evidence of existing financial or human resource allocated to develop policy and legislation relevant to this indicator. 

Enforcement mechanisms

Since no legislation has been found on animals used in scientific experiments, there are no enforcement mechanisms associated with this category of animals.

Key recommendations

• The Government of Ethiopia is urged to enact legislation which would protect all animals used in scientific research from unnecessary pain and suffering. The Three Rs principles – Replacement, Reduction, Refinement – should be enshrined in legislation.

• The Government of Ethiopia is encouraged to create ethics committees, in charge of scrutinising applications for animal research. Such ethics committees should be able to suspend the activities or revoke the registration of establishments which do not respect animal welfare criteria. Animals used for research should be provided with shelter, care, food and water in a manner appropriate to their physiological and behavioural needs. A nominated member of the laboratory staff, preferably a veterinarian, must have full responsibility for animal welfare at all times.

• Furthermore, the Government of Ethiopia is urged to ban the testing of cosmetic products and their ingredients on animals.

E

Protecting the welfare of wild animals

Proclamation No. 192/1980 provides for the conservation and development of forest and wildlife resources. Article 11 states that the objective of the Forest and Wildlife Conservation and Development Authority is to ensure proper protection, development, rational utilisation and management of forest and wildlife of the country. This Proclamation is concerned with preservation of species of wild animals and prohibits hunting without a licence (Article 22).

The Government advises that the Ministry of Culture and Tourism has objectives and activities with the aim of increasing revenue from wildlife tourism and eco-tourism and with respect to decreasing illegal hunting and trade of wild animal and their products, and protecting endangered wild animal species. Government policy includes a number of protected areas where hunting is controlled.

Since the API was first published in 2014, Ethiopia has published a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2015-2020. This Plan acknowledges that biodiversity is a ‘source of tourism’. The Strategy admits that ‘information on the status and trends of wild fauna as a whole is limited’. According to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Ethiopia has five critically endangered, 27 endangered and 47 vulnerable species of wild animals.

Analysis

Ethiopian legislation recognises the value of wild animals; however, legislation is centred on natural resource management, and measures to protect the welfare of individual animals are not included. There is no legislation or policy focused specifically on welfare issues associated with wild animals, and it is not clear whether hunting licences include any welfare-related conditions or restrictions on methods and time of hunting. Furthermore, Proclamation No. 192/1980 does not specify which conditions need to be fulfilled for someone to be authorised to get a hunting licence.

At a minimum, control over hunting methods could help to prevent inhumane killing and would go further to protect welfare. It is encouraging that the government has established several protected areas (PAs) to protect the country’s biodiversity, including national parks and areas in which hunting is controlled.

The Government advises that unsustainable utilisation (over grazing/browsing, harvesting and hunting) of biological resources is one of the major threats to biodiversity and ecosystems in Ethiopia. These issues combined with poverty, low literacy and high unemployment create pressure on the country’s biodiversity and threaten wild animal welfare. Though it is positive that Ethiopia has a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, the Strategy focuses on preserving the species of wild animals and does not contain any provisions on the welfare of individual animals.

Enforcement mechanisms

Violations of Proclamation 192/1980 are publishable with imprisonment of up to two years and/or with fine.

Key recommendations

• The Government of Ethiopia is encouraged to ban any form of hunting that does not directly support subsistence, i.e. for feeding oneself and one’s family and not for commercial gain. Subsistence hunting operations must employ the least cruel methods of hunting and slaughter, and that all possible efforts should be made to reduce the time to death of animals killed in these hunts. At a minimum, the Government is strongly encouraged to forbid the use of the cruellest hunting methods.

Establishment of supportive government bodies

Establishment of supportive government bodies

This goal examines government commitment to animal protection. This includes whether there is allocation of responsibility, accountability and resources within government to protect animals.

F

Government accountability for animal welfare

The Ministry of Agriculture in Ethiopia has some responsibility for the implementation of relevant legislation. However, these mandates are mostly in connection with animal health protection. In 2018, the Ethiopian Parliament’s lower house approved the merging of the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources with the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries.

The Forest and Wildlife Conservation and Development Authority has the responsibility to implement legislation with regards to natural resource management, including issues affecting wildlife and unlawful hunting.

There is no Ministry with direct responsibility for animal welfare, nor any committee or government body dedicated to improving animal welfare.

Analysis

There is some evidence of existing allocation of responsibilities for issues closely related to animal welfare, such as the health of farm animals and the conservation of wild animals. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of direct responsibility for animal welfare promotion in a government body in the country and there is no evidence of financial resource allocated to animal welfare development and policy.

The existing legislation provides a potential framework for assignment of responsibility for legislation development for animal protection. Developing this framework could create authorities specifically responsible for animal welfare in the country. There are links between animal health and animal welfare that could be further explored. Prevention of animal disease as well as safe and effective veterinary treatment is crucial for providing proper care for animals and promoting the protection of animal health in turn encourages the consideration of animal welfare. It is however important for animal welfare to be recognised as an independent issue with specific government responsibility for implementation in relation to all categories of animals. In fact, health improvements would have a beneficial effect on animal welfare, but further provisions are needed to ensure that the physiological and behavioural needs of animals are met in order to satisfy their welfare needs. There is no evidence that specifically improving animal protection and animal welfare is a concern of the Ministry.

Enforcement mechanisms

The responsibilities of relevant government bodies are set out in legislation. However, no Ministry has direct responsibility for animal welfare. 

Key recommendations

• The Government of Ethiopia is urged to assign responsibility for animal welfare, in addition to animal health, to a Ministry. This Ministry should be responsible for enacting animal welfare legislation and for monitoring the implementation of animal welfare standards.

• In addition, the Government of Ethiopia is strongly encouraged to create a multi-stakeholder committee in order to effectively engage all actors involved in maintaining animals’ well-being to find solutions for welfare concerns. This committee would guide the country’s policies and strategies on animal welfare, in line with international standards. This committee should include representatives of animal welfare organisations.

Support for international animal welfare standards

Support for international animal welfare standards

This goal looks at whether the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)’s animal welfare standards have been incorporated into law or policy, and whether the Government is supportive of the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare.

G

OIE animal welfare standards

The OIE Animal Welfare Standards focus on transport, slaughter, production systems (beef cattle, broiler chickens, dairy cattle, pigs), stray dog population control, the use of animals in research and education, and working equids.[1]

There is no evidence by which implementation of OIE’s standards and guiding principles can be found in the country's legislation.

Analysis

Transposition of the OIE’s standards and guiding principles into legislation has not taken place. The OIE’s standards on animal welfare not only represent a consensual position achieved by countries represented in the organisation with regards to this subject matter, but also provide scientific background used to produce sound policy and legislation on animal welfare. Incorporating the OIE’s standards into legislation could therefore improve protection for animals in the country and bring Ethiopia’s legislation in line with other countries in terms of standards of animal welfare.

The Animal Diseases Prevention and Control Proclamation No. 267/2002 outlines standards on animal disease prevention and control in accordance with the OIE’s Biosecurity and Animal Health recommendations. This suggests that the government recognises the role that the OIE can play in improving relevant legislation relating to animals, which gives rise to hope that it may be possible for similar implementation exercises to take place in relation to animal welfare.

Enforcement mechanisms

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.  

Key recommendations

• The Government of Ethiopia is strongly encouraged to implement the OIE’s animal welfare standards and principles within policy and legislation.

Support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare

The Government of Ethiopia has not yet pledged in principle support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare.

Note: The UDAW is a proposed formal international acknowledgement of a set of principles giving animal welfare due recognition among governments and the international community. An expression of support for the UDAW demonstrates a government’s commitment to working with the international community to improve animal welfare.

Analysis

Support for the UDAW would be a first step into integrating animal protection considerations into different discussion tables, becoming a source of inspiration for decision makers interested in improving animal protection in the country.

Enforcement mechanisms

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

Key recommendations

• The Government of Ethiopia is encouraged to pledge in principle support for the UDAW. Support for the UDAW will likely underpin further animal protection measures.

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Executive Summary

Ethiopia’s Criminal Code No. 414/2004 bans cruel treatments being inflicted on animals in public places. It is also an offence to organise shows or entertainment events during which animals are treated with cruelty – the Criminal Code explicitly mentions animal fights and the captive shooting of animals.

Though it is positive that animal cruelty is prohibited in the Criminal Code, there is a lack of overarching animal welfare legislation in Ethiopia. The country’s legislation does not recognise animal sentience, and there is a lack of basic protection for animals. Notably, there is no duty of care onto animal owners. There is also a lack of legislation regarding the conditions of rearing, transport and slaughter of farm animals, as well as the humane treatment of stray animals. Furthermore, the country allows for the use of animals for fur farming and entertainment purposes, such as circuses.

The Ministry of Agriculture in Ethiopia is responsible for implementing farm animal legislation; however, legislation is focused on animal health rather than animal welfare. In 2018, the Lower House of Ethiopia’s Parliament approved the merging of the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources with the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries.  The Forest and Wildlife Conservation and Development Authority has the responsibility to implement legislation with regards to natural resource management, including issues affecting wildlife and unlawful hunting. There is no Ministry with direct responsibility for animal welfare, nor any committee or government body dedicated to improving animal welfare.

The Government of Ethiopia is urged to enact a comprehensive animal welfare legislative act that would enshrine animal sentience, define animal welfare in line with the OIE standards, and prohibit animal cruelty in private places. Further animal welfare provisions will stem from this recognition of animal sentience. In particular, the Government of Ethiopia is urged to ban the worst forms of confinement for animals reared in farming, and to mandate humane slaughter for all livestock animal species. In addition, the Government of Ethiopia is strongly encouraged to fully ban fur farming, which is inherently cruel and causes pain, distress and suffering to animals. The Government is also urged to outlaw the culling of stray animal populations, and to implement spay-and-neuter campaigns as a tool to control stray animal populations. The Government is furthermore strongly encouraged to ban the use of all animals for entertainment, in circuses for instance. Overall, the Government of Ethiopia is strongly encouraged to align its current legislation with OIE standards. Responsibility for animal welfare should be allocated to a Ministry, and a specific government body should enact and assess the implementation of animal protection legislation. Such a government body should include representatives from animal welfare organisations.

Further legal and policy recommendations are associated with each Animal Protection Index (API) indicator and contained in the relevant sections of this report.

Date of information: 10/03/2020
Population 
91,728,849
GDP 
$43,133,073,100
GDP (PPP) 
$1,139
Education expenditure (% of GDP) 
4.7 (2010)