Egypt

F
Egypt

This country's score has stayed the same since 2014. 

Recognition of animal sentience and prohibition of animal suffering

Recognition of animal sentience and prohibition of animal suffering

This goal assesses whether animal sentience has been recognised in legislation and explores the core legislative protections granted to animals, such as the prohibition of animal cruelty.

F

Animal Sentience is formally recognised in legislation

Article 119 of Law No. 53 - The Law of Agriculture (1966) ,  refers to cruelty to animals stating that it is forbidden to exercise cruelty to animals.  However, there appears to be no recognition in law of animal sentience, for example, there is no statement that refers to pain or suffering.

Analysis

Currently legislation does not recognise that animals are sentient, nor does it explicitly acknowledge that animals feel pain and can suffer both physically and psychologically. The inclusion of a guarantee of humane protection of animals in the country’s constitution indicates that progress may be possible. There are also several NGOs campaigning to protect animals, for example, Brooke Hospital for Animals and the Society of Protecting Animal Rights in Egypt.

Enforcement Mechanisms

The Agricultural Code contains enforcement mechanisms for Article 119, in Articles 140 to 149. These mechanisms mostly consist of fines and imprisonment measures.

Key Recommendations

• Given the extensive body of scientific evidence proving that animals are sentient, the Government of Egypt is urged to recognise that all animals for whom there is scientific evidence – at a minimum, all vertebrates, cephalopods and decapods crustaceans – are sentient beings and to enshrine this principle into legislation. Recognising animals as sentient will underpin further animal welfare considerations.

E

Laws against causing animal suffering

Article 45 of the Egyptian Constitution (2014)  states that ‘The State shall…preserve plant, animal and fish resources and protect those under the threat of extinction or danger, guarantee humane treatment of animals, all according to the law.

The Agricultural Law (1966) provides that it is forbidden to exercise cruelty to animals. The law also requires that the Ministry of Agriculture shall specify, by decree, the cases to which this applies. However, the decree was not found at the time of writing.

Article 355 and 357 of the Egyptian Penal Code  include criminal penalties for deliberately killing or poisoning some animals: a riding animal, a carrying beast, a towing beast, any other type of livestock, or any tame animal.

Legislation does not include provisions prohibiting causing suffering through failure to act.
 

Analysis

The existing legislation presents an imprecise framework of protection and there are limited specified provisions for some animals. While the new statement of animal protection within the Egyptian Constitution is an improvement for animal welfare, there are have not been subsequent improvements in legislation to guarantee animal protection.

Socio-cultural attitudes to animals in the country may present barriers to progress, because animal welfare is not regarded as an issue by the public. Poverty and a lack of education may also hinder progress.
The lack of serious penalties means that the legislative protections for animals that do exist are likely to be inadequate in terms of deterrent value.

 

Enforcement Mechanisms

The Egypt Penal Code includes fines and imprisonment, which are limited depending on the specific conduct. Fines can be up to 200 Egyptian pounds and imprisonment can be up to seven years.


Key Recommendations

• The Government of Egypt is encouraged to introduce an independent Animal Welfare Act that includes a definition of animal welfare, in line with the OIE, and that explicitly promotes the Five Freedoms.

•The Government of Egypt is encouraged to assign responsibility for animal welfare to a Government Ministry and to establish an Animal Welfare Committee to advise the Government on policy and animal welfare solutions. The Animal Welfare Committee should include representatives from animal welfare organisations.

Presence of animal welfare legislation

Presence of animal welfare legislation

This goal explores animal protection laws in relation to various categories of animals, namely: farm animals, animals in captivity, companion animals, working animals and animals used for entertainment, animals used for scientific research and wild animals.

G

Protecting animals used in farming

Rearing
The Agricultural Law (1966) includes a number of provisions with regard to animal health, including specific references to animal used for farming. For instance, Article 117 specifies that it is forbidden to hunt birds that are useful to agriculture. 

Articles 124 to 138 make provisions regarding the health of animals used in agriculture, which include quarantine procedures and mandates on vaccination, destruction of animals and meat products and other measures in relation to slaughter in abattoirs.

However, a translation of the Agricultural Law (1966) was not found at the time of writing, thus only a limited assessment of the law can be made for the Animal Protection Index.
Rearing - pigs
There is no policy or legislation related specifically to the rearing of pigs.
Rearing - broiler chickens

There is no policy or legislation related specifically to the rearing of broiler chickens.
Resolution No. 560 (2006) , Ministerial Decree No. 906 (2008)  and Ministerial Decree No. 1220 (2010)  provide provisions for the establishment of poultry farms. However, a translation was not found at the time of writing and therefore the Decrees have been unable to be assessed for the Animal Protection Index.

Rearing - egg-laying hens
There is no policy or legislation related specifically to the rearing of egg-laying hens.

Resolution No. 560 (2006), Ministerial Decree No. 906 (2008) and Ministerial Decree No. 1220 (2010) provide provisions for the establishment of poultry farms. However, a translation was not found at the time of writing and therefore the Decrees have been unable to be assessed for the Animal Protection Index.
Rearing - dairy cattle and calves
There is no policy or legislation related specifically to the rearing of dairy cattle and calves.
Transport
Ministerial Decrees No. 498 (2013) , Ministerial Decree No. 847 (2012)  and Ministerial Decree No. 2128 (2011)  all relate to transport of animals both within Egypt and through imports and exports. However, translations of the Decrees were not found at the time of writing and therefore they were unable to be assessed for the Animal Protection Index.
Slaughter
Under the Agricultural Law (1966) it is prohibited to slaughter male cattle under two years of age unless they reach the weight requirements as prescribed by the Ministry of Agriculture. It is also prohibited to slaughter female cows, buffalo and sheep unless they have already been replaced within a herd.

Decree No. 33 of 1967  details procedures regarding the slaughter of diseased animals. However, a translation was not found at the time of writing therefore the Decree was unable to be assessed for the Animal Protection Index.

Resolution No. 1225 (2010)  relates to the establishment of slaughterhouses. However, a translation was not found at the time of writing and therefore the Resolution is unable to be assessed for the Animal Protection Index.

 

Analysis

The existing legislation is not currently sufficient to protect the welfare of animals used in farming during rearing, transport and slaughter. 

The lack of animal welfare standards in the country has caused concern internationally and led to Australia ceasing exports in 2006. In 2013, evidence of extreme cruelty in two slaughterhouses receiving sheep from Australia was published causing concern in Australia and internationally.  A report published in 2014 found that one of the two slaughterhouses had failed to apply international minimum standards.

There is no indication of human or financial resource dedicated specifically to animal welfare by the Ministry of Agriculture, which is the designated responsible authority for promoting the health and protection of animals.

The lack of recognition of the importance of animal welfare as an issue separate to those of animal health and disease control is a considerable barrier to progress.

The lack of government action on transport and slaughter legislation for farm animals despite a multi-year ban by the Australian government on the live export of sheep to Egypt, imposed because of animal cruelty concern, indicates that there are significant barriers to progress. In these circumstances even trade drivers secured no progress.


Enforcement Mechanisms

The Agricultural Code contains enforcement mechanisms for the Articles referred to, in Articles 140 to 149. These mechanisms mostly consist of fines and imprisonment measures. There is no indication of complementary policy and official literature on welfare measures for animals used in farming.
 

Key Recommendations

• The Government of Egypt is urged to enact legislation detailing specific welfare requirements for the rearing of farm animals during the phases of rearing, transport and slaughter. Such requirements should be legally binding and species-specific. Regular inspections onto farms and slaughter establishments should be carried out with a special focus on animal welfare.

• The Government of Egypt is urged to ban the worst forms of confinement for farm animals. In particular, the use of farrowing crates, sow stalls, and cages should be banned. The stocking density of broiler chickens should also be reduced to a maximum of 30 kg/m2 or lower. Surgical operations, such as piglet mutilations and beak trimming for egg-laying hens, should not be performed except under anaesthesia and with analgesics.

• The Government of Egypt is urged to mandate the humane slaughter of all farm animals. Animals should be instantaneously rendered unconscious and insensible to pain and distress prior to slaughter. Today, there is growing consensus amongst religious authorities worldwide that pre-slaughter stunning is compatible with religious principles.  Humane halal slaughter allows for the animal to be temporarily rendered unconscious via stunning prior to slaughter, as long as the animal's skull remains intact and the animal would regain consciousness in time should slaughter not occur. Therefore, animals should be unconscious before being bled, and no further processing should occur until irreversible loss of consciousness is confirmed. No animal should be forced to witness other animals being slaughtered as this is inherently distressing.

• Due to the significant animal welfare concerns associated with long distance transport, the Government of Egypt is strongly urged to ban the export of live animals for long distances (i.e. over eight hours) and replace it with a meat only trade. Long distance transport is inherently cruel as it involves chronic stress for all animals and for some species and modes of transport it may involve overpopulation, exhaustion, excess heat or cold, inadequate ventilation and/or access to food and water, leading to disease, pain, injury or death.

F

Protecting animals in captivity

Zoos
It is unclear if Article 119 of the Agriculture Law (1966) is applicable to animals in captivity. There is no policy or legislation related specifically to zoos.
Private keeping of wild animals
There is no policy or legislation related specifically to the private keeping of wild animals.
Fur farming
There is no policy or legislation related specifically to fur farming.
 

Analysis

There is no legislative acknowledgement of animal welfare issues affecting animals in captivity. The lack of development of regulations on the welfare of wild animals in general prevents discussions relevant to address welfare issues of captive animals, for example, those in zoos in the country about which there are serious welfare concerns.  Reports suggest that standards in zoos in Egypt are generally poor. Reports also suggest that activities such as animal riding and feeding by the general public are commonplace.

There were encouraging indications from a project at the government-owned Giza Zoo, which could be adapted given resources and political will to other government-owned zoos. Giza Zoo is the largest government zoo in Egypt and is the centre of the Egyptian Department of Zoos and Wildlife Services. Giza has been successful in working with an international NGO, Wild Welfare, in a bid to raise welfare standards at the zoo. However, this project was no longer running by the time of writing.

 

Enforcement Mechanisms

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.
 

Key Recommendations

• The Government of Egypt is urged to produce detailed legislation specifying the conditions under which wild animals may be kept in captivity. Such regulations should include requirements with regards to housing, feeding, handling and husbandry and should promote the Five Freedoms of all individual animals. In particular, the Freedom to express normal behaviours should be respected.

• The Government of Egypt is strongly encouraged to allocate human and financial resources to create an inspection unit in charge of verifying that welfare standards are respected where animals live in captive settings. Facilities where animals are kept captive should be regularly inspected, and the results of such inspections should be made public.

• The Government of Egypt is encouraged to develop a Positive List of species, specifying which animals can be kept as companion animals, based on clear criteria including animal welfare and other relevant concerns.

• The Government of Egypt is urged to fully ban fur farming. Fur farming is inherently cruel and causes pain, distress and suffering to animals.

F

Protecting companion animals

Care of companion animals
Article 357 of the Penal Code includes ‘tame animals’ in the list of animals protected from killing or poisoning.
 
Article 124 of the Agricultural Code includes in its definition of animal ‘domestic animals and birds’, thus including these animals in provisions relating to disease control, quarantine procedures and disposal of diseased specimens.

There is no policy or legislation related specifically to companion animals. However, dog owners are required to license their dogs through their veterinarian. 
Stray animals
There is no policy related specifically to stray animals. However, reports suggest the Government of Egypt has begun to export its stray animals to other countries in a bid to solve the stray animal problem.  Reports also suggest culling of stray cats and dogs also takes place in Egypt.
 

Analysis

The existing legislation contains no provisions on the welfare of companion animals and the protection given is imprecise and only creates punishment for causing death. The Agricultural Code regulates issues that have to do with animal health, providing powers and measures to cull animals, without strong defining guidelines or regulations. No other control methods are considered in law.

As Egypt does not have strong basic animal protection legislation, it is difficult for issues such as protection of companion animals to be improved in the country.

The Government via the General Organisation for Veterinary Services, a body that falls under the Ministry of Agriculture, carries out systematic poisoning and shooting of stray dogs.  Such methods are not in alignment with agreed international recommendations and good animal welfare practice.

The country has problems with stray dog and cat population management, which affects negatively the perception of animal protection nationally and internationally.  In particular, one of the greatest constraints in Egypt is the failure to implement humane methods to address this issue. This does not appear to be a government priority.


Enforcement Mechanisms

There are some penalties for conducts that may aggravate or dissipate illnesses of animals, but no enforcement mechanisms on issues in relation to the promotion or implementation of animal welfare for companion animals were found.
 

Key Recommendations

• The Government of Egypt is urged to halt the mass export of stray dogs and cats to other countries as this action does not address the root causes of stray animal overpopulation.
 
• The Government of Egypt is encouraged to engage with the International Companion Animal Management (ICAM) coalition to learn about and implement their dog population management methodology. This methodology consists of a full cycle of action, addressing the root causes of conflict between roaming dog and communities. The document is helpful to governments to manage dogs humanely as well as to help communities to live in harmony with dogs.
 
• The Government of Egypt is strongly encouraged to promote humane stray animal population management, which relies on promoting responsible ownership, mass vaccinations and reproduction control programmes. Culling has been scientifically proven to be ineffective and should therefore be banned.

G

Protecting animals used for draught and recreation

Article 355 and 357 of the Penal Code include criminal penalties for deliberately killing or poisoning some animals: a riding animal, a carrying beast, a towing beast, any other type of livestock, or any tame animal. These general provisions for limited offences of killing or poisoning would therefore apply to draught animals and tame animals used for recreational purposes. There are no further detailed legal or policy provisions protecting the welfare of this category of animals.
Animals used for entertainment
There is no policy or legislation related specifically to animals used for entertainment.

There are no laws regarding animal fights and reports suggest dog fighting takes place in Egypt.
Draught animals
There is no policy or legislation related specifically to draught animals. However, there are some provisions provided in the Egyptian Penal Code as noted above.
 

Analysis

The lack of policy and legislative developments on the issue of animals used for work and entertainment beyond the limited offences of killing and poisoning, leaves a large number of animals outside the sphere of legal protection and therefore further policy development is encouraged in the country. Such legislative development is particularly required given the large numbers of working equines in the country that are essential to the livelihoods of many people. 

There is no legislation to protect the welfare of performing animals, for example, circus animals or animals used for other recreational purposes. Concern has been expressed about the welfare of wild animals in circuses in the country.

This does not appear to be a government priority. Further barriers to progress include lack of access to affordable quality veterinary services for working horses, donkeys and mules. A lack of education and awareness and poverty of animal owners are further barriers to progress. Traditional medicine is often cheaper than modern medicine and may lead to animal suffering.

However, it should be noted that a number of NGOs are active in the country with respect to the welfare of working horses, donkeys and mules. For example, the Brooke opened its first hospital dedicated to working horses and donkeys in 1934 and has programmes in 200 communities in seven regions: Cairo, Luxor, Aswan, Edfu, Alexandria, Mersa Matruh and the Nile Delta.
 

Enforcement Mechanisms

There are penalties under the Penal Code for the limited legislative provisions that exist. The Penal Code includes fines and imprisonment, which are limited depending on the specific conduct and which punish acts that have caused death to animals. 
 

Key Recommendations

• The Government of Egypt is urged to forbid the organisation of and attendance to entertainment events causing animal suffering. Such a prohibition should cover circuses, rodeos, animal fights, animal races, rides on wild animals and all other forms of entertainment. Notably, the Government is strongly encouraged to ban the use of all animals in circuses. Phasing out of animals for entertainment purposes could start with a ban on the use of wild animals for such performances.

• The Government of Egypt is strongly encouraged to adopt specific legislation to address the welfare of working animals, including working equids, following the requirements of the OIE’s animal welfare standards. Working animals must be treated with consideration and must be given adequate shelter, exercise, care, food and water appropriate to their physiological and behavioural needs. Any condition that may impair their welfare must be treated promptly and, affected animals must not be worked again until they are fit. They must not be overworked or overloaded, nor must they be forced to work through ill-treatment.

G

Protecting animals used in scientific research

There is no of policy or legislation related specifically to the use of animals in scientific research.
 

Analysis​

No evidence was found demonstrating government interest or engagement in this issue. The Government is encouraged to address the protection of animals used in research. 

 

Enforcement Mechanisms

There is no evidence of policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

 

Key Recommendations

• The Government of Egypt is urged to enact legislation which would protect all animals used in scientific research from unnecessary pain and suffering. The Three Rs principles – Replacement, Reduction, Refinement – should be enshrined in legislation.

• The Government of Egypt is encouraged to mandate the creation of ethics committees at all research facilities, in charge of scrutinising applications for animal research. Such ethics committees should be able to suspend the activities or revoke the registration of establishments which do not respect animal welfare criteria. Animals used for research should be provided with shelter, care, food and water in a manner appropriate to their physiological and behavioural needs. A nominated member of the laboratory staff, preferably a veterinarian, must have full responsibility for animal welfare at all times.

• The Government of Egypt is strongly encouraged to create a national centre consisting of multiple stakeholders, including animal protection organisations, to promote the Three Rs principles and to develop alternatives to animal experimentation.

• The Government of Egypt is urged to ban the testing of cosmetic products and their ingredients on animals.

E

Protecting the welfare of wild animals

Under the Agricultural Law (1966) wild animals including wild birds that are useful for agriculture and the environment, are protected from hunting and killing. Similarly, it is also prohibited to destroy the nests of birds that are useful for agriculture. 

The Agriculture Law (1966) establishes that it is forbidden to hunt, trap, possess, transport or sell wild animals. However, there are no similar provisions for parts or products of wild animals. Article 117 nevertheless, specifies that the Ministry of Agriculture will specify by secondary legislation to which animals this prohibition applies and establishes that areas for hunting (including tourist hunting) are to be defined through secondary legislation. However, secondary legislation regarding hunting was not found at the time of writing. An almost identical provision appears in the Environmental Law (Law 4 of 1994). 

There is evidence of Decrees being produced to protect certain species following mandates from one or other of these two laws. For instance, Decree No. 1403 (1990)  protects certain reptiles and lizards from being killed or used for commercial purposes. Ministerial Decree No. 274 (2013)  provides provisions regarding the hunting and export of frogs. However, a translation of these Decrees was not found at the time of writing.

Further legislation dealing with the protection of animals’ environments and of ecosystems can be found in Law No. 102 on Natural Protected Areas (1983).  However, a translation was not found at the time of writing.
 
Egypt is party to a number of international conventions concerning wildlife and nature conservation including the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and CITES.
 

Analysis

There is some level of protection over the trade of wild animals and the legislation acknowledges that capture, possession and exhibition of these animals can undermine their welfare. The legislation potentially prevents issues of wildlife trading as well as basic life and integrity and protection of animals under this indicator. It is unfortunate that it does not apply directly and in a general way to all animals in the country, but rather requires secondary legislation to be implemented, thus requiring further political action. 

The country’s most recent report to the Convention on Biological Diversity was submitted in 1998 and contained details of a wide range of activity concerning conservation of endangered species and protection of habitat.

Cairo is an acknowledged major wildlife trafficking centre owing to its geographic location between Africa and Europe.

There is evidence of human resource allocated to the implementation of this law, in the form of the Ministry of Agriculture. There are numerous reports indicating that hunting tourism and wildlife trafficking are undermining wildlife populations   , which may indicate some cultural disengagement with protecting the welfare of animals in this category. This presents a barrier to improve the welfare of wild animals in the country.
 

Enforcement Mechanisms

Both laws referred to contain fine and imprisonment mechanisms for enforcement. However, there is no evidence of complementary guidelines, recommendations or policy literature on the importance of welfare protection for animals covered by this indicator. 
 

Key Recommendations

• The Government of Egypt is encouraged to ban any form of hunting that does not directly support subsistence i.e. for feeding oneself and one's family and not for commercial gain. Subsistence hunting operations must employ the least cruel methods of hunting and slaughter, and that all possible efforts should be made to reduce the time to death of animals killed in these hunts. At a minimum, the Government is strongly encouraged to forbid the use of the cruellest hunting methods.

• The Government of Egypt is encouraged to implement a standardised hunting permit license, which would be delivered after successful completion of a test by which applicants would be required to show their knowledge of hunting methods where animal suffering can be minimised. Hunters’ knowledge of individual wild animal species should also be assessed, so that their activities do not undermine conservation efforts. 

• The Government of Egypt is encouraged to introduce anti-cruelty provisions for animals in the wild.

Establishment of supportive government bodies

Establishment of supportive government bodies

This goal examines government commitment to animal protection. This includes whether there is allocation of responsibility, accountability and resources within government to protect animals.

F

Government accountability for animal welfare

The Ministry of Agriculture in Egypt has some responsibility for developing secondary legislation for the implementation of some animal-related legislation, as described in previous indicators. These mandates are mostly in connection with animal health protection and no evidence of specific regulations on animal welfare responsibilities was found. In addition, the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency has the specific responsibility of preparing draft legislation for environmental management, including issues affecting animals and biodiversity.

The General Organisation for Veterinary Services (GOVS), a body associated with the Ministry of Agriculture has the mission to “to protect animals from infectious and epidemic diseases.”


Analysis

The existing legislation does provide a framework on which to build processes for assigning responsibility and accountability for improving animal protection in the country. However, there is no evidence of direct responsibility for animal welfare promotion within a government body in the country and there is no evidence of financial resource allocated to animal welfare development and policy relating to the relevant legislation.

Inclusion of a reference to the protection of animals in Egypt’s Constitution does not appear to have resulted in improvements in animal welfare legislation.
 

Enforcement Mechanisms

There is no evidence of enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.
 

Key Recommendations

• The Government of Egypt is encouraged to explicitly assign responsibility for animal welfare to one Ministry, with appropriate resources for research, implementation and enforcement.

• The Government of Egypt is encouraged to create a multi-stakeholder committee to effectively engage all actors involved in maintaining animal well-being to find solutions for welfare concerns. This committee should guide the country’s policies and strategies on animal welfare, in line with international standards. This committee should include representatives of animal welfare organisations.

Support for international animal welfare standards

Support for international animal welfare standards

This goal looks at whether the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)’s animal welfare standards have been incorporated into law or policy, and whether the Government is supportive of the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare.

G

OIE animal welfare standards

The OIE Animal Welfare Standards focus on transport, slaughter, production systems (beef cattle, broiler chickens, dairy cattle, pigs), stray dog population control, the use of animals in research and education, and working equids.

The OIE animal welfare standards have yet to be transposed into legislation and policy in the country.
 

Analysis

The OIE’s standards on animal welfare provide the necessary scientific background to produce sound policy and legislation on animal welfare. Egypt is a member of the OIE and as such has given its support to the OIE’s animal welfare standards and guiding principles for animal welfare. The government is encouraged to incorporate the OIE’s standards and principles within legislation.

The desire to access more trade markets could provide some motivation for the country to develop legislation and policy so as to comply with good international animal welfare standards in particular with respect to farm animal welfare. However, the experience of the ban on live export of sheep from Australia to Egypt suggests that even with trade pressures there remain significant barriers to improvement.
 

Enforcement Mechanisms

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.
 

Key Recommendations

• The Government of Egypt is encouraged to implement legislation in line with the OIE animal welfare standards, including enforcement mechanisms for all species to ensure a good level of animal welfare across the country.

Support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare

The Government of Egypt has not pledged in principle support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare.

Note: The Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare is a proposed formal international acknowledgment of a set of principles giving animal welfare due recognition among governments and the international community. An expression of support for the UDAW demonstrates a government’s commitment to working with the international community to improve animal welfare.

Analysis

Support for the UDAW would be a first step into integrating animal protection considerations into different discussion tables, becoming a soft law source for decision makers interested in improving animal protection in the country.

The Government has not expressed a desire to improve animal protection in the country through support for the UDAW.


Enforcement Mechanisms

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

 

Key Recommendations

• The Government of Egypt is encouraged to pledge in principle support for the UDAW. Support for the UDAW will likely underpin further animal protection measures.

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Executive Summary

The Constitution of Egypt mandates the protection of animals and places overall responsibility for their protection on the State. The Agriculture Law (1966) combined with the Egyptian Penal Code provides some protections for animals. Legislation prohibits the killing of certain animals and the overworking of draught animals. There are some protections for specific species in Egypt such as some species of reptiles and amphibians.

Animal welfare protections in Egypt are limited. There are a few anti-cruelty provisions provided in existing legislation, such as the Agriculture Law (1966), however, there is no specific animal welfare law. Many animals are left without any protections, for example, animals in scientific research or animals in the wild. Similarly, there are no secondary regulations or laws mandating appropriate housing, care, transport or slaughter for farm animals or animals in captivity. There are also no supplementary regulations regarding the care of both owned and stray companion animals.

The Ministry of Agriculture is assigned responsibility for animal health in Egypt. However, no Government Ministry has been assigned overall responsibility for animal welfare.

Since the 2014 edition of the Animal Protection Index there have been limited changes to animal welfare legislation in Egypt. While the Constitution was amended in 2014 to include the protection of animals as a responsibility of the State, this amendment has not resulted in improved legislation to protect animals.
 
The Government of Egypt is encouraged to introduce an independent Animal Welfare Act that includes a definition of animal welfare, in line with the OIE, and that explicitly promotes the Five Freedoms. The Government of Egypt is also encouraged to assign responsibility for animal welfare to a Government Ministry and to establish an Animal Welfare Committee to advise the Government on policy and animal welfare solutions. The Animal Welfare Committee should include representatives from animal welfare organisations. Furthermore, the Government of Egypt is urged to introduce secondary legislation for many categories of animals including farm animals, animals in captivity and companion animals. This legislation should enshrine the Five Freedoms in law and establish species-specific standards and criteria for the care, housing and transport of these animals. Further legal and policy recommendations are associated with each Animal Protection Index (API) indicator and contained in the relevant sections of this report.

 

Date of information: 10/03/2020
Population 
80,721,874
GDP 
$257,285,845,358
GDP (PPP) 
$6,723
Education expenditure (% of GDP) 
3.8 (2008)