Nigeria

E
Nigeria
Recognising animal protection

Recognising animal protection

This theme examines recognition of animal sentience and the importance of animal protection as a societal value within the country, including government support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare, prohibition of cruelty and protection for different categories of animals.

E

Formal recognition of animal sentience

There is legislation with partial application

The government has not developed any policy or legislation by which animal sentience is formally recognised. However there is reference in legislation to the ability of animals to suffer, and to psychological states of being infuriated and being terrified, which shows some recognition of elements of animal sentience (section 495 Criminal Code 1990). This applies to domestic and captive animals, including birds, fish and reptiles, but not to wild animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The acknowledgement of animal suffering and the ability to feel anger and fear shows some limited recognition of element of animal sentience. However current provisions in policy and legislation are not sufficient for recognising the concept in its entirety. There is no formal evidence or signal from the government to recognise animal sentience as an independent issue, and animal sentience does not currently inform public policies that could be potentially linked to animals (including environmental or sustainable production policies). Wild animals are excluded from the partial recognition of sentience.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has not yet incorporated current practical experience and scientific knowledge regarding animal sentience into the country’s legislation. The government does not appear to consider animal welfare as an important issue, despite Nigeria being a member of the OIE, which has guiding principles on animal welfare that are based on the premise that animals are sentient beings.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Causing suffering and cruelly infuriating or terrifying an animal are criminal offences punishable with fines and/or imprisonment under section 495 of the Criminal Code 1990.

G

Support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare

There is no government support

The government has not pledged in principle support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare.

Note: The Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare is a proposed formal international acknowledgment of a set of principles giving animal welfare due recognition among governments and the international community. An expression of support for the UDAW demonstrates a government’s commitment to working with the international community to improve animal welfare.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Support for the UDAW would be a first step into integrating animal protection considerations into different discussion tables, becoming a soft law source for decision makers interested in improving animal protection in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government is encouraged to pledge in principle support for the UDAW as this will promote good models of animal welfare policy and help to introduce animal welfare into decision making processes for other policies.  The government has not expressed a desire to improve animal protection in the country; however, support for the UDAW would be a first step in doing so.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

B

Laws against causing animal suffering

There is legislation

Section 495 of the Criminal Code 1990 prohibits acts of cruelty to animals. These include, under 495(1)(a), cruelly beating, kicking, over-loading, infuriating or terrifying an animal, or as the owner, permitting this to happen. Section 495(1)(b) creates an offence of failure to act, prohibiting wantonly or unreasonably doing or omitting to do any act that causes unnecessary suffering (or as the owner, permitting an act that causes unnecessary suffering). This section also prohibits transporting animals in a manner that causes unnecessary suffering (c), administration of poison (d), operations performed without due care (e) and actions associated with animal fighting (f).

There are exceptions for acts done in the course of slaughter for food, except where there is the infliction of unnecessary suffering, and for the hunting of a captive animal, unless it was liberated in an injured, mutilated or exhausted condition. Section 495 applies to all domestic and captive animals, including birds, fish and reptiles. Therefore this does not include wild animals unless they have been captured or confined.

Property offences in sections 450 and 456 prohibit wilfully and unlawfully killing, maiming or wounding any animal “capable of being stolen”, with greater penalties for more financially valuable species of animal, and wilfully spreading infectious disease among animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The legislation should be sufficient for the prohibition of acts of cruelty to domestic animals, and includes offences of failure to act. It recognises animal welfare and the importance of prohibiting animal cruelty. However wild animals are not covered by this protection.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The legislation is not currently applicable to coursing or hunting of any captive animals, unless the animal is liberated when injured, mutilated or exhausted. This leaves a large number of animals outside the sphere of legal protection. Further policy development is encouraged to protect all categories of animals.

There is no evidence in the legislation that the government has allocated financial resources to undertake the implementation of the animal protection provisions.  There is no evidence of a body responsible with the task of developing policy to improve animal welfare in the country, which is a barrier for its development.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Any person who commits acts of cruelty detailed in section 495 Criminal Code 1990, or as an owner permits such cruelty, is liable to imprisonment for six months, or a fine of fifty naira, or both.

Any person guilty of offences detailed in section 450 is liable to imprisonment for two years, increased to seven years if the animal in questions is on a specified list which includes horses, cows, goats, pigs, and rams.

Any person guilty of offences detailed in section 456 is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

C

Protecting animals used in farming

There is legislation with partial application

Sections 450, 456 and 495 of the Criminal Code 1990, as outlined in indicator 3, are applicable to animals used in farming. However, there is no specific reference to animals used in farming in the existing legislation, and animals being slaughtered for food are excluded from the protection of section 495 except where there is unnecessary suffering.

In addition, the Animal Diseases (Control) Act 2004, which aims to control and prevent the introduction and spread of infectious and contagious disease among animals in Nigeria, contains requirements for the transportation of animals, including farm animals. These mostly apply to control of disease rather than animal welfare but do include the requirement that during transport of animals for the purpose of slaughter, the journey may not exceed thirty kilometres (section 12(6)) and that transport of animals for trade by road or rail requires the person in charge to stop to feed, water and rest the animals every twelve hours (section 12(7)). Provisions on stocking density to allow adequate ventilation (section 12(8)), as well as loading ramps to reduce injury (section 12(9)) are also included.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The existing legislation takes into consideration a number of concerns relevant to the welfare of animals in this category, including humane treatment and transport. The government is encouraged to recognise all of the welfare issues faced by animals used in farming, and produce further requirements and guidance in legislation and policy related to rearing conditions and husbandry

of different species of animals from a welfare perspective.

The dissemination of knowledge of animal welfare within the livestock sector would assist in making the welfare of farmed animals a mainstream concern of society. No evidence was found of existing guidelines, recommendations or codes of practice describing the importance of welfare for animals used in farming, or tools that raise awareness of welfare issues faced by farm animals in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Section 495 of the Criminal Code 1990 provides an exemption for activities connected with slaughter for human consumption, unless such slaughter is accompanied by the infliction of unnecessary suffering. There are no specifications as to what constitutes “unnecessary suffering” in this context. Inefficient or ineffective slaughter methods, including a lack of pre-stunning, can result in prolonged pain and distress. Legislation could go further to protect animals during slaughter, and include provisions on humane slaughter methods.

There does not appear to be a dedicated government body allocated to enforce this legislation, other than the police force through its overall responsibility for the Criminal Code. The government is recommended to assign a relevant government body with the responsibilities of implementing and promoting this legislation and for developing further policy and guidance on the welfare of farmed animals.

The Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development is responsible for formulating, supervising and overseeing policies on agriculture and practices covering animals and diseases. Although the Animal Diseases (Control) Act 2004 does include important welfare provisions on transport of animals, including those used in farming, it would benefit from the inclusion of housing and husbandry specifications to further protect the welfare of farmed animals.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Any person who commits acts of cruelty detailed in section 495 Criminal Code 1990, or as an owner permits such cruelty, is liable to imprisonment for six months, or a fine of fifty naira, or both.

Any person guilty of offences detailed in section 450 is liable to imprisonment for two years, increased to seven years if the animal in questions is on a specified list which includes horses, cows, goats, pigs, and rams. Any person guilty of offences detailed in section 456 is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Any person contravening the relevant provisions of the Animal Diseases (Control) Act 2004 is liable to fines not exceeding 100 naira or imprisonment not exceeding thirty days for the first offence, and a fine not exceeding 200 naira or imprisonment not exceeding two months for subsequent offences.

D

Protecting animals in captivity

There is legislation

The general provisions of sections 450, 456 and 495 of the Criminal Code 1990 apply to animals in captivity.

There is limited legislation specifically covering the welfare of captive animals. The Wild Animals (Captive Animals) Regulations 1975 prohibit keeping certain protected species of wild animals in captivity without a licence, but refer only broadly to welfare in requiring that licence holders make adequate provisions for the health and welfare of captive protected animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The current legislation covers only deliberate acts of cruelty to animals and forms of neglect. Further provisions should be introduced regarding the housing, handling (both during capture and generally) and husbandry of this category of animals to ensure the welfare of animals held in large zoos or circuses, as well as by individuals with captive animal licences.

Acknowledging the particular welfare issues faced by animals in captivity is necessary to improve their welfare. For instance, the country does not appear to have specific legislation to protect animals in captive settings such as game reserves, zoos or circuses. Although the existing protection in the Criminal Code is applicable to captive animals, the government is encouraged to introduce specific legislation for animals in captive settings, with guidelines on housing and husbandry.

The Wild Animals (Captive Animals) Regulations 1975 require that a licence, valid for one year, be held in order to keep protected animals (as listed in the Wild Animals Law 1963) in captivity. Although licence agreements require that adequate provisions are made for the health and welfare of the animal, there are no specifications as to what constitutes “adequate provisions”.

Research could not find any evidence of a government body responsible for implementing this legislation. In order to make the welfare of this category of animals a mainstream concern of society, the government is encouraged to allocate responsibilities of enforcement and promotion of the legislation to a specific authority.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Existing provisions create a legislative barrier to improvement for some species. Section 495 of the Criminal Code gives an exemption for the coursing or hunting of any captive animal, “unless liberated in an injured, mutilated or exhausted condition.” This potentially leaves a large number of animals outside of the protection of existing legislation. The existing requirement for licence holders to make “adequate provisions” for health and welfare could be a useful starting point for elaboration of detailed guidance or requirements for different captive settings and different species of animals.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Any person who commits acts of cruelty detailed in section 495 Criminal Code 1990, or as an owner permits such cruelty, is liable to imprisonment for six months, or a fine of fifty naira, or both.

Any person guilty of offences detailed in section 450 is liable to imprisonment for two years, increased to seven years if the animal in questions is on a specified list which includes horses, cows, goats, pigs, and rams. Any person guilty of offences detailed in section 456 is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Failure to comply with the Wild Animals (Captive Animals) Regulations 1975 is liable to a fine not exceeding 100 naira, or imprisonment not exceeding six months, or both, and a licence can be revoked if the licence-holder is not making adequate provision for the health and welfare of the animal.

D

Protecting companion animals

There is legislation with partial application

The general anti-cruelty provisions of sections 450, 456 and 495 of Chapter 77 of the Criminal Code 1990 apply to companion animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

It is not only a criminal offence to cause suffering to an animal, but as an animal owner, it is a criminal offence to permit such suffering to be caused to any animal. Furthermore, the inclusion of neglecting to act to prevent the suffering of an animal shows the government’s recognition of different forms of animal abuse. These are important first steps in raising awareness and making the welfare and protection of companion animals a mainstream concern of society. However, no responsible government body is identified for implementing the legislation. The government is advised to mandate a ministry or department of Nigerian government to promote and enforce the legislation. An authority with the specific aim to promote good companion animal welfare would enable awareness to be disseminated across the country. There do not appear to be any efforts to regulate specific welfare issues faced by companion animals, such as provisions on food and shelter, or humane management of stray populations.  There is no evidence in legislation that the government is willing or able to invest human or financial resources in this area.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The lack of responsible authority for implementing the existing legislation acts as a barrier for improving animal welfare in Nigeria.  An apparent lack of general concern for animal welfare may present a barrier to progress.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Any person who commits acts of cruelty detailed in section 495 Criminal Code 1990, or as an owner permits such cruelty, is liable to imprisonment for six months, or a fine of fifty naira, or both.

Any person guilty of offences detailed in section 450 is liable to imprisonment for two years, increased to seven years if the animal in questions is on a specified list. Any person guilty of offences detailed in section 456 is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

B

Protecting animals used for draught and recreation

There is legislation

The general anti-cruelty provisions of sections 450, 456 and 495 of the Criminal Code 1990 apply to animals used for draught or entertainment.

A number of the conducts deemed abusive in Section 495 are particularly relevant to draught animals, including the prohibition of over-riding and over-loading. Animal fighting and baiting is banned under section 495, putting restrictions on the use of animals for recreational purposes.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

While some general principles are applicable to animals in this category, there is no acknowledgement of issues specifically concerning animal welfare in relation to animals used for exhibition or performance.  In order to make the welfare of these animals a mainstream concern of society, it is recommended that the government make some communication or effort to promote the legislation on animals used for draught or recreation.  Awareness of these regulations is presumed to be low within society. 

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The prohibition of over-riding and over-loading and of activities connected with animal fights demonstrates that the government has acknowledged some of the key welfare issues surrounding the use of animals for draught or recreational purposes. However it is recommended that further provisions be introduced to protect the welfare of these animals in situations of neglect or other types of non-deliberate cruelty. Guidance regarding their housing, training, handling and husbandry would be useful to ensure the welfare of working animals as well as those used in entertainment. There is no evidence in legislation that the government has allocated human or financial resources to undertake the development of these guidelines or further animal welfare legislation. An apparent lack of general concern for animal welfare may present a barrier to progress.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Any person who commits acts of cruelty detailed in section 495 Criminal Code 1990, or as an owner permits such cruelty, is liable to imprisonment for six months, or a fine of fifty naira, or both.

Any person guilty of offences detailed in section 450 is liable to imprisonment for two years, increased to seven years if the animal in questions is on a specified list which includes horses. Any person guilty of offences detailed in section 456 is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

D

Protecting animals used in scientific research

There is legislation

Section 495 of the Criminal Code applies to all domestic and captive animals, including birds, fish and reptiles, and prohibits deliberate causing of suffering to animals, and suffering through failure to act. The existing legislation does not contain any specific mandates on the use of animals for education and scientific research. It is a criminal offence to subject an animal to any operation “performed without due care and humanity”, or as the owner, to permit such an operation, which has some application to scientific research.

The reference to “unnecessary suffering” may provide the ability for those carrying out some research procedures to argue that they are necessary. It would be useful to have detailed rules and guidelines on the use of animals in scientific research.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Although the provisions in section 495 of the Criminal Code give some limited protection to animals used in experimentation from certain welfare concerns associated with scientific research, there are no explicit guidelines on animals used in scientific research in this country. No evidence has been found indicating that the government has made any attempt to regulate the use of animals in research, falling behind international trends and good animal welfare standards. The government is encouraged to include specific provisions on animals used in research, as well as to establish an authority responsible for implementation and improvement. Emphasis on the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) would be a step in the right direction by encouraging a decrease in the number of animals used in science, and improving the welfare of those that are used as well as replacement of animals with alternative non-animal methods, now widely developed and in use in other countries.   

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no indication or evidence of existing financial or human resource allocated to develop policy and legislation relevant to this indicator. This does not appear to be a priority for government work and finance.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Any person guilty of performing operations without due care and humanity is liable to imprisonment for six months or to a fine of fifty naira or both (section 495 Criminal Code).

C

Protecting the welfare of wild animals

There is legislation with partial application

Section 495 of the Criminal Code 1990, which creates offences of cruelty to animals, does not apply to wild animals unless they have been captured or confined. Sections 450 and 456 of the Criminal Code 1990, which prohibit unlawful killing or wounding and prohibit poisoning, apply to animals that are “capable of being stolen”, and wild animals “in the enjoyment of their own natural liberty” are not protected by this legislation (section 382).

The Endangered Species Act, CAP E9, LFN 2004 focuses on the protection and management of Nigeria’s wildlife, specifically vulnerable and endangered species. Hunting, capture or trade in an animal species threatened with extinction (endangered) is prohibited. Hunting, capture or trade in an animal species that may become so threatened unless trade is controlled (vulnerable) is prohibited, except under a valid licence. No person shall trade in vulnerable species if export/import of the animal is detrimental to its survival. The animal must be transported in a way to minimise the risk of injury, damage to health, cruel treatment or death.

The Wild Animals Law 1963 makes further provision for the protection of certain listed protected species and for the establishment of game reserves. This law also contains some restrictions on hunting methods at sections 33 and 34, which apply to all wild animals. It is prohibited to use bait, poison or explosives for hunting or capturing any wild animals other than pests, to use any net, fence or pit to capture any wild animals other than fish or pests, to use or sell any traps other than those prescribed for the control of pests, to hunt or capture animals except fish at night, to hunt as part of a group of more than five people, or to hunt animals from vehicles or aircraft (other than wild fowl and crocodiles which can be hunted from small craft). Pests are defined as invertebrates, poisonous snakes, birds of the order Ploceideae or rodents which are causing widespread and persistent damage.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The legislation recognises the value of wild animals by restricting and prohibiting hunting activities depending on the protected status of individual species. There are also restrictions on hunting methods that do give some limited protection to the welfare of wild animals, other than animals classified as pests in legislation.

Wild animals are not currently included in the protection from acts of cruelty under section 495 of the Criminal Code 1990, such as cruelly beating, kicking, ill-treatment, over-riding, over-driving, over-loading, torturing, infuriating, or terrifying animals, neither are they protected from wilful and unlawful killing, maiming or wounding (section 450) or from poisoning (section 456). Extending this legislation to protect animals in the wild as well as domestic and captive animals would go further towards making the welfare of wild animals a mainstream concern of society.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Traditional attitudes towards hunting may act as barriers to addressing welfare issues concerning wild animals. However, it is positive that the government has introduced legislation to address some cruel hunting methods. 

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Any person who contravenes the Endangered Species Act 2004 by trading in, obtaining or dealing with an animal species threatened with extinction is liable to a fine of 1,000 Naira for a first offence, and one year imprisonment with the option of a fine for a second offence.

Any person who trades in, obtains or deals with an animal species which may become threatened with extinction unless trade is controlled, is liable to a fine of 500 Naira for a first offence, and 6 months imprisonment for a second offence.

There is no evidence of existing guidelines, recommendations, codes of practice, or other positive enforcement methods that explain the importance of animal welfare for wild animals in general, or of tools that raise awareness of issues regarding illegal wildlife trade in the country.

Governance structures and systems

Governance structures and systems

This theme examines government commitment to improving animal protection. This includes whether there is allocation of responsibility, accountability and resources within government.

E

Government accountability for animal welfare

There is legislation with partial application

The Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development is responsible for formulating, supervising and overseeing policies on agriculture and issues covering animal disease, including the Animal Diseases (Control) Act 2004.

Research has found no authority responsible for improving animal welfare protection at a high government level. Other than the general law enforcement bodies, there is no evidence of government appointed bodies specifically responsible for the animal protection legislation in the Criminal Code. The licencing procedure in the Wild Animals (Captive Animals) Regulations 1975 is governed by the Permanent Secretary, but delegated officials are not identified.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The Animal Diseases (Control) Act 2004 includes some welfare provisions relating to the transport of animals, however, the majority of the policies that the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development is responsible for relate to farm animal health protection. Promoting the protection of animal health does in turn generally encourage better animal welfare. However, due to the range of factors that influence an animal’s welfare outside of its health, it is important for animal welfare to be recognised as an independent issue.

The framework described above has some potential to develop and implement policy and legislation relating to the protection of certain categories of animals, including farm animals. However, there is an absence of legislation across most other animal categories.

Animal protection is not regarded as a distinct issue in legislation, and is dealt with as part of a much wider package of issues related to property ownership under the Criminal Code. Although the mechanisms described above could potentially enhance and strengthen existing animal welfare provisions, research could not identify any evidence that this is taking place.  

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is evidence of existing allocation of responsibilities for the development of some issues as specified in the previous indicators. However, there is no evidence of direct responsibility for animal welfare promotion in a government body in the country and there is no evidence of financial resource allocated to animal welfare development and policy in said legislation. This does not appear to be a priority for government work and finance.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

The references to government authorities in the relevant legislation are to give enforcement powers to those authorities, not to mandate action by them. There is no evidence of enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

Animal welfare standards

Animal welfare standards

This theme examines whether the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)’s animal welfare standards have been incorporated into law or policy, the extent of engagement with the OIE on animal welfare issues, and whether the government publishes reports on progress in improving animal welfare.

D

Engagement with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

There is policy

The country shows some level of engagement with OIE initiatives. The veterinary services of Nigeria have been subject to assessment through the OIE Performance Veterinary Services (PVS) tool in 2007 and 2010, and the PVS report has been made public.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The government of Nigeria has proactively engaged with the OIE to receive support and guidance on animal welfare. At the time of the most recent PVS assessment, in 2010, no targeted level for animal welfare over the next five years was identified. The report stated that the OIE’s standards for animal welfare were generally not implemented, and that the priority during the next five years was to be to introduce some relevant standards on animal welfare into legislation, for example, with respect to slaughter.

Although the majority of the OIE’s animal welfare standards remain unimplemented, the PVS facility is a very useful tool for assessing and raising awareness of animal welfare in the country and facilitating progress towards this goal. Further PVS evaluation reports, undertaken at relevant intervals, would be useful for measuring progress against objectives.  However, it is important that reports are produced according to a suitable government structure designed to monitor and continuously improve animal welfare in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The last PVS evaluation took place in 2010, with priorities for the next five years to introduce some relevant standards on animal welfare into legislation. Accessing the PVS facilities of the OIE and allowing the OIE to identify gaps in capacity demonstrates a commitment to engagement with the OIE as a whole. However, no evidence was found that the issues assessed by the OIE have resulted in legislative changes in the country. There is no evidence of subsequent reports indicating progress.

The OIE has advised the government on the necessity of introducing relevant standards on animal welfare into the legislation, and some human and financial resource investment will be required to ensure that all of the OIE’s standards are met to protect animal welfare.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

D

OIE animal welfare standards

There is legislation with partial application

The animal protection legislation in Nigeria includes some of the issues covered by the OIE’s animal welfare standards, such as transport of animals for trade. The Animal Diseases (Control) Act 2004 sets limitations to the distance animals can be transported for slaughter, necessitates rest times for feeding and watering animals being transported for trade, and requires stocking density to allow adequate ventilation.

However most of the other OIE animal protection standards are not regulated by policy or legislation, including slaughter of animals for human consumption or disease control, control of stray dog populations, welfare of animals in research and education, and issues in beef cattle and broiler chicken production systems.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The government has taken some steps towards the production of legislation on animal protection. However, it has not transposed the majority of the OIE’s standards into policy or legislation. Incorporation of the OIE’s standards could enable the country to develop a system of protection on issues that do not currently appear to have regulation, such as the use of animals in experiments.

As it stands today, animal protection legislation meets some basic welfare needs, but incorporating the OIE’s animal welfare standards would further improve animal protection in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Although the government has shown some engagement with the OIE, which suggests that progress may be achievable, it is noted that no improvements appear to have been made since the OIE’s 2010 PVS assessment, suggesting that barriers to improvement remain.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

In relation to those legislative provisions which transpose the animal welfare standards, there are enforcement mechanisms. For instance, any person contravening provisions of the Animal Diseases (Control) Act 2004 are liable to fines not exceeding 100 naira or imprisonment not exceeding thirty days for the first offence. Any subsequent offences shall be liable to a fine not exceeding 200 naira or imprisonment not exceeding two months. Further incorporation of the OIE’s guiding principles and standards could provide the chance to use similar mechanisms to implement legislation.

G

Reporting on progress

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence of policy or legislation that suggests that the government captures, analyses and produces publicly available information on the progress of animal welfare improvement in the country. 

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The implementation of policy or legislation requiring the production of reports on animal welfare progress would be beneficial for adding transparency to the government’s management and procurement of animal protection and animal welfare, as well as for allowing the government to gauge the effectiveness of their current legislation concerning the subject. Government bodies are advised to collect data, for example on the effectiveness of implementation of current legislation, to enable reporting.  At present, there is no evidence to suggest that this structure is in place in the country. Providing such tools would undoubtedly help discussions on animal welfare to be held at a high government level.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence that the government has allocated budget or human resource to producing comprehensive monitoring and reporting systems in the country. This does not appear to be an area of priority work and finance for the government. It may be that the lack of recognition of the importance of animal welfare as an important issue separate to those of animal health and disease control is a considerable barrier to progress.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no evidence of existing legislation or policy in the country relevant to this indicator.

Providing humane education

Providing humane education

This theme examines whether issues of animal care and protection are included in the national education system at primary and secondary level, and comments on whether animal welfare issues such as humane handling form part of veterinary medicine education.

D

Education on animal care and protection

There is policy

There is no apparent evidence of the inclusion of animal care and protection in the curriculum of compulsory education.

In 2011 the Ministry for Education introduced the new Senior Secondary Education Curriculum. The new structure includes the choice of 35 trade entrepreneurship subjects, one of which is Animal Husbandry. The age level of Senior Secondary Education is 15 to 18 year olds and is not compulsory.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Formalisation of animal welfare components in the country’s education system is one of the most powerful ways to make the concept of animal welfare a mainstream concern of society. In the case of Nigeria, the inclusion of animal husbandry as an optional vocational course in Senior Secondary Education contributes positively to such efforts. However, the lack of evidence of formal education plans or curriculums with animal welfare content in compulsory education inhibits progress.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Inclusion of animal welfare as a required course in the education system would imbed the importance of this into society. This Is particularly important for the many communities which rely on animals for their livelihoods. It may be that the lack of recognition of the importance of animal welfare as an important issue separate to those of animal health and disease control is a considerable barrier to progress.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no evidence of existing policy or legislation relevant to this indicator. 

Promoting communication and awareness

Promoting communication and awareness

This theme examines whether there is government consultation and engagement with relevant stakeholders on animal protection issues, such as the development of new legislation and policy and the licensing of scientific research using animals.

G

Consultation with stakeholders

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence in policy and legislation that the government actively encourages the participation of independent experts and civil society in the development and implementation of animal protection policy.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

No evidence was found of consultation between stakeholders and the authorities responsible for implementing the existing animal protection legislation.

The Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, responsible for formulating, supervising and overseeing policies on agriculture and practices covering animals and diseases, does not have public information indicating such consultation with stakeholders.

Engaging relevant stakeholders who work within the fields utilising animals, or in NGOs promoting animal welfare, is encouraged to provide expertise in the subject and further promote animal protection in the country’s legislation.  

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is currently no suggestion that the government is open to consultation with relevant stakeholders, which suggests that there are barriers to improvement here. 

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no evidence of policy and legislation relevant to this indicator.

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Real GDP is forecast to average out at just under 7% for the period 2014-18. Currently 90% of Nigeria’s exports are crude oil, representing 20% of GDP – which is expected to increase due to the new Usan oilfield becoming operational. Domestic demand is driving the agricultural and services sector due to the fact that private consumption accounts for 54% of GDP.  Nigeria is also running a surplus of 1.5% of GDP in its current accounts. Although there are a number of positive trends, with positive robust growth and healthy seeming balance of payments position, there are some risks to the economy. Any volatility in oil prices and possible slump in global demand, due to, for example, weakening economies, will reduce Nigeria’s revenue.

 

Date of information: 11/02/2014
Population 
168,833,776
GDP 
$262,605,908,770
GDP (PPP) 
$2,661
Education expenditure (% of GDP) 
NA