Venezuela

E
Venezuela
Recognising animal protection

Recognising animal protection

This theme examines recognition of animal sentience and the importance of animal protection as a societal value within the country, including government support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare, prohibition of cruelty and protection for different categories of animals.

E

Formal recognition of animal sentience

There is legislation with partial application

The country’s norms on animal protection do not refer to sentience. There is a reference in Article 3 of the Law for the Protection of Free and Captive Domestic Fauna 2010 (No. 39,338) to actions causing suffering to domesticated animals, which shows recognition of one of the elements of animal sentience in relation to a restricted group of animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Lack of recognition of one of the main scientific arguments for animal welfare is a step missing in the improvement of animal protection in the country. As such, decision-making processes on other areas are not able to take into consideration this issue, making it difficult to make animal welfare and animal protection of mainstream concern in the country. The government is encouraged to incorporate a full recognition of animal sentience into legislation and policy.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has not yet incorporated current practical experience and scientific knowledge regarding animal sentience into the country’s legislation. The government does not appear to consider animal welfare to be an important issue for regulation.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are fines for breach of the prohibition on causing suffering to domesticated animals in Article 3 of the Law for the Protection of Free and Captive Domestic Fauna 2010.

G

Support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare

There is no government support

The government has not pledged in principle support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare (UDAW).

Note: The Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare is a proposed formal international acknowledgment of a set of principles giving animal welfare due recognition among governments and the international community. An expression of support for the UDAW demonstrates a government’s commitment to working with the international community to improve animal welfare.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no support for the UDAW. Support for the UDAW would be a first step into integrating animal protection considerations into different discussion tables, becoming a soft law source for decision makers interested in improving animal protection in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Taking into consideration that support for the UDAW implies political will to adopt a soft-law commitment and that this has not taken place in the country, the salient obstacle seems to be a lack of political will to adopt this policy.  

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

C

Laws against causing animal suffering

There is legislation with partial application

The Venezuelan government produced the Law for the Protection of Free and Captive Domestic Fauna, No. 39,338 in January 2010. Under Article 3 a definition of welfare includes that animals are kept in conditions “free of abuse, abandonment, harm, cruelty or suffering.” Article 66 defines acts of cruelty as those that cause the animal pain or suffering or affect its health, those which neglect hygiene, housing and transport conditions, killing using a method that causes prolonged agony, and mutilations that are not done out of necessity by a veterinarian. This therefore encompasses deliberate acts of cruelty and failure to act. However this legislation applies only to domesticated animals (Article 5).

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The law establishes that its objectives are the “protection, control and welfare” of domestic animals. Protection is defined as entailing “actions and measures to regulate property, possession, management, use and commercialisation” of animals, which is a narrow scope. Welfare measures, following international standards, are absent from this definition and no provisions incorporating the guiding principles of animal welfare can be found in the law. Animal welfare promotion is likely to have difficulty in its promotion in this framework. Although the wording of the law is positive in prohibiting cruel acts, there is very little elaboration and definition of this, and the law does not include non-domesticated animals.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The legislation does provide for responsible authorities, which in practical terms would be the Mayor’s office for each municipality. There is also a barrier in the form of the legal definitions, which provide the point of reference and motivation for the law (for example, commercialisation) that ultimately means that the law covers matters that are the resort of other branches of law, making implementation difficult.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Law 39,338 includes a series of provisions describing conducts and sanctions, divided into three groups, and then a list of complementary sanctions. Conducts are described as mild, serious and very serious and for each category maximum fines are specified. In addition, the complementary sanctions have a scope that covers administrative penalties, such as cancelling a licence or closing a trading unit, and also some sanctions such as confiscation of animals. Pre-emptive measures under Article 67 include seizure and access to buildings.

E

Protecting animals used in farming

There is legislation with partial application

The general anti cruelty provisions in Law 39,338 apply to this category of animals.

There are also specific references to animals used in farming (referred to as animals for human consumption). Article 9 specifies that animals should have some time to rest before slaughter and refers to municipal rules on slaughtering. Article 44 states that the use of domestic animals for human consumption will be regulated by municipal regulations, although it is not clear whether any such regulations have been made.

In this country there is some legislation specifically related to the valuable cattle industry. The Law for the Protection of Cattle Industry was passed in July 1997 and introduces criminal offences to the Venezuelan penal system. However, there are no regulations in this law that make reference to animal welfare, as the law focuses on theft and criminal activities associated with fraud and illegal trade in livestock. 

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The Venezuelan animal protection Law 39,338 does very little to address issues in relation with animals used in farming. Even though the legislation is relatively recent, there are no indications that its production was informed by international standards (or even regional standards) as most of the internationally identified issues with regard to the welfare of this category of animals do not appear regulated. In addition, the framework for this law is the “use of animals”, which does not imply consideration for the needs of individual animals. The law seems to rely upon a conception according to which protection of animals is mostly based on health regulations to prevent human disease, and no evidence of welfare promotion can be found in this law.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Municipal authorities have the power to produce regulations on slaughter and rearing, but no implied powers or processes connect such regulations with legislative or policy attempts to improve welfare standards in the country.

Complementary legislation does not have the objective to promote animal welfare. Therefore remission to those norms from the animal protection law creates an artificial structural barrier for the introduction of national animal welfare legislation, in that it relies on municipal authorities to produce their own regulations and efforts to promote this.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Law 39,338 includes a series of provisions describing conducts and sanctions, divided into three groups, and then a list of complementary sanctions. Conducts are described as mild, serious and very serious and for each category maximum fines are specified. In addition, the complementary sanctions have a scope that covers administrative penalties, such as cancelling a licence or closing a trading unit, and also sanctions such confiscation of animals. These enforcement mechanisms relate to the general anti-cruelty provisions.

There is no evidence of mechanisms for the enforcement of the provisions which touch upon welfare issues (Articles 9 and 44).

D

Protecting animals in captivity

There is legislation with partial application

The provisions of Law 39,338, including the general anti cruelty provisions, apply only to domesticated animals (Article 5). It is not clear whether this is intended to include wild animals that are kept in captivity. Law 39,338 does not contain any provisions dedicated specifically to issues on captive animals.

Wild animals in the wild are covered by the Law for Protection of Wild Animals, which excludes tamed wild animals kept in captivity (Article 2, Number 2: the law does not apply to wild animals that have been tamed).

Article 53 of the Criminal Law on the Environment (No. 39,913 and published recently in 2012) includes a criminal offence which relates to this category of animals as it establishes a criminal offence of keeping exotic aquatic animals in cages or enclosed environments and introduces some offences relating to biodiversity.

There is evidence of existing regulations for zoos in the framework of the National Foundation of Zoological Parks and Aquariums (produced by the government in 1991), although it is not known whether these have legally binding status.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The health and welfare of captive wild animals, and the control over the keeping of such animals, is not currently subject to detailed regulation in the country.  However the existing legislation could act as a baseline from which it will be possible to build up further structures for animal protection in the future. It is also important that the government continues supporting the production of regulations for zoos and private collections, as a direct avenue to enhance or improve animal welfare conditions for captive animals could be sought here.

There is a significant opportunity to produce secondary legislation, guidance and policies by which the existing provisions could be complemented, helping Venezuelan citizens to understand and prevent cases of abuse in their system. 

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The apparent exclusion of this category of animals from the existing level of protection afforded to other animals suggests that significant barriers to improvement exist here. It may be that socio-cultural attitudes and a lack of awareness about animal welfare provide a barrier to progress.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are enforcement mechanisms (administrative penalties and fines) relating to the general anti-cruelty provisions in Law 39,338, but it is not clear whether this law applies to wild animals kept in captivity.

The environment law has a clearer mandate, process and authorities defined in order to enforce legislation.

C

Protecting companion animals

There is legislation

Law 39,338 focuses on protection of companion animals, in particular dogs. In addition to the general anti-cruelty provisions, a number of articles in the law address specific problems or situations that aim to prevent particular forms of abuse towards companion animals (for instance, Article 16 bans dog fighting). The law establishes some responsibilities on owners and keepers of companion animals: Article 18 provides for food, care and health to be considered.

The law also includes some measures to prevent illegal trade in domestic animals, including requiring registration and specific care activities by citizens undertaking such activities.

The legislation includes a number of provisions on euthanasia (described as “painless slaughtering” or “painless death”) of domestic animals as a mechanism for population control resulting from what the law describes as “critical situations” where health and goods are deemed to be threatened by animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Although the establishment of duties and responsibilities of care and maintenance are at the core of the minimum standards to promote animal welfare for this category of animals, there are issues that currently prevent adequate animal welfare promotion.

 The legislation has taken some steps towards helping citizens understand the importance of animal protection and it offers a model according to which animal protection is considered independently from other issues and opens the door for the government to produce further legislation and policy on particular standards that all citizens should be accountable for. 

The government is encouraged to develop humane methods of stray population control, such as trap-neuter-return, as an alternative to killing.

Industry analysis of the pet market in the country reports that the work of NGOs with respect to developing a more solid framework in the country for animal protection and welfare is likely to achieve improvements in the way pets are perceived, not only as possessions but also as family members.[1]

 

[1] http://www.euromonitor.com/pet-care-in-venezuela/report

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The developing legislative framework in the country and trends relating to pet ownership suggest that further improvements may be possible. However, there may be resource issues in view of the economic climate in the country, as suggested by industry reports.[1]

 

[1] http://www.euromonitor.com/pet-care-in-venezuela/report

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Law 39,338 includes a series of provisions describing conducts and sanctions, divided into three groups, and then a list of complementary sanctions. Conducts are described as mild, serious and very serious and for each category maximum fines are specified. In addition, the complementary sanctions have a scope that covers administrative penalties, such as cancelling a licence or closing a trading unit, and also sanctions such as euthanasia of animals and indefinite confiscation of animals. There are no additional enforcement mechanisms in the law derived from the special administrative procedures.

D

Protecting animals used for draught and recreation

There is legislation with partial application

The provisions of Law 39,338, including the general anti cruelty provisions, apply only to domesticated animals (Article 5). It is not clear whether this includes wild animals trained and kept in captivity (for example, in circuses).

Article 14 and 15 establish some general provisions for animals used in recreational activities (including sports), exhibitions and for shows or performances. These mandates are quite open and require regulation by municipal authorities. In the case of animals used in performances there is a requirement that they should be kept in cages big enough to move and should not be harassed in their performances.

There is no evidence of legislation specifically addressing the health and welfare of animals used for draught and other working animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The existing provisions in Law 39,338 are limited in scope. Other than a space requirement there is no evidence of legislation placing limitations or restrictions on the use of wild animals in circuses or other forms of public performance. The standards that the legislation sets do not encourage animal welfare measures but rather provide some management rules on the use of animals as a commodity.  Animals used for draught and other forms of work are absent from legal protection. Whilst it would appear that the provisions of the legislation would prevent bullfighting from occurring, bullfighting continues to take place and is popular albeit with some opposition to the practice.[1]

The current legislative framework is therefore not effective to make the welfare of this category of animals a mainstream concern of society.

 

[1] http://venezuelanalysis.com/analysis/9878

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is remission to municipal authorities for regulation of the conditions in which animals live, but there is no evidence in legislation that this is required to be done or that financial resource is given to implement legislation. It appears that there are socio-cultural barriers to improving animal welfare, for example, with respect to bullfighting.[1]

 

[1] http://venezuelanalysis.com/analysis/9878

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Law 39,338 includes a series of provisions describing conducts and sanctions, divided into three groups, and then a list of complementary sanctions. Conducts are described as mild, serious and very serious and for each category maximum fines are specified. In addition, the complementary sanctions have a scope that covers administrative penalties, such as cancelling a licence or closing a trading unit, and also sanctions such as confiscation of animals. There are no additional enforcement mechanisms in the law derived from the special administrative procedures, and remission to municipal authority regulation means that there is discretion from municipal authorities to regulate in this area, thus potentially making enforcement difficult.

E

Protecting animals used in scientific research

There is legislation with partial application

The provisions of Law 39,338, including the general anti cruelty provisions, apply only to domesticated animals (Article 5). This appears to include domestic animals used in scientific research, as Articles 52 to 55 relate to the use of domestic animals for scientific research. It therefore appears that the protection of this law does not apply to the use of wild animals (whether or not tamed) in research.

Two of these articles refer to animal destruction, whether it is because the animal is left in conditions in which it can no longer live or because the procedure implied vivisection. This is the only welfare consideration. The other two elements permit the use of animals in research, provided that the adequate competencies are met and that the procedure is undertaken with appropriate guidance. 

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The current regulations legitimise activities using animals in research without providing welfare-related restrictions on this use. There are no indications of species that can or cannot be used and none of the international guiding principles on animal welfare for this category appear to be applied. Research on live animals is permitted even by basic education institutions. Likewise, the practice of vivisection is permitted with no restriction whatsoever apart from the qualifications of the person undertaking it. The government is encouraged to follow regional and international trends, including the Three Rs principles, in order to effect policy and legislative changes. 

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence of existing regulators in this area, nor has the activity of the use of animals in research been allocated to any organ or body in particular in the government. There is no evidence of financial or human resource that could improve animal welfare in this category. There appear to be significant barriers to improvement.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are enforcement mechanisms (administrative penalties and fines) relating to the general anti-cruelty provisions in Law 39,338. These apply to domestic animals used in research, but it is not clear whether this law applies to wild animals used for scientific research. In addition, as the provisions specifically relating to this category of animals fall in a different title within the law, there is lack of clarity on whether these animals are covered by the same mechanisms.

C

Protecting the welfare of wild animals

There is legislation with partial application

The provisions of Law 39,338, including the general anti cruelty provisions, do not apply to wild animals (Article 5).

In 1970 the government produced the Law for the Protection of Wildlife (Law 29,289), and some environmental crimes relating to animals can be found in the Criminal  Law of the Environment, produced recently in 2012 (Law 39,913). Both laws address issues focused more on species conservation than on individual animal protection and include a number of general environmental provisions.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Law 29,289 creates a comprehensive framework in which wild animals can be protected, although the basis for this is the protection of groups or species of animals rather than the protection of the welfare of individuals. The wild animal protection legislation includes restrictions on hunting but also establishes the conditions under which citizens can “use” the resource of wild animals, which creates a negative structure for animal welfare promotion. The legislation prohibits some forms of capture (particularly in Law 39,913) and protection extends to commercialisation of specimens and sub-products, which are particularly positive forms of initial engagement with wild animal protection.   

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Given the baseline of existing legislation, there do not appear to be very significant barriers that could prevent animal protection and animal welfare to be improved for this category of animals.  The law establishes enforcement mechanisms and there is potential to produce information and policy with regard to understanding wild animals and providing better protection. However, there may be resource issues with respect to the challenges faced in the fulfilment of the country’s strategic aim[1] to combat illegal trade in wildlife.[2]

 

[1] http://www.cbd.int/countries/targets/?country=ve

[2] http://www.bluechannel24.com/?p=16995

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Article 11 of Law 29,289 gives responsibility of this issue to the Ministry of Agriculture and Breeding and establishes a summary criminal procedure to enforce the law. In addition, there are fines and other pecuniary sanctions which facilitate the access to financial resources informing the implementation of the legislation.  Recent criminal environmental legislation also has the general resource of the criminal branch of power for implementing provisions protecting wild animals.

Governance structures and systems

Governance structures and systems

This theme examines government commitment to improving animal protection. This includes whether there is allocation of responsibility, accountability and resources within government.

D

Government accountability for animal welfare

There is legislation with partial application

Law 39,338 has created a network of authorities that are in charge of implementation. The system provides for municipal authorities (headed by the Mayor of each municipality or city) to implement the law, thus, decentralising power from the executive branch into the regions. The law requires a public management unit for each municipality, which in turn is said to have the faculty to enact the provisions. 

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

This law creates a new organ within the municipal power structure to address the issue of animal protection, thus effectively taking responsibility away from central government for control and management of the execution and implementation of the legal provisions. In addition, it creates a series of controls and tasks in these authorities for which there is no evidence of strategic planning in terms of its enactment and implementation. It does not appear that this structure is effective to make animal welfare a mainstream concern.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Although the legislation shows a comprehensive list of expected qualifications of the people potentially working for municipal units, it provides no guidance on the way in which these positions might be filled in or the financial resource to sustain them. Article 35 of Law 39,338refers to regulations that will be introduced to address resource issues (human and financial) for these units, but there is no evidence that these regulations have been produced. There appear to be resource barriers to improvement.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Responsibilities of relevant government bodies are set out in legislation.

Animal welfare standards

Animal welfare standards

This theme examines whether the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)’s animal welfare standards have been incorporated into law or policy, the extent of engagement with the OIE on animal welfare issues, and whether the government publishes reports on progress in improving animal welfare.

D

Engagement with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

There is policy

The government participates in the regional animal welfare strategy for the Americas. In addition, the OIE reports that the country has requested a PVS Mission, although this has not yet been completed (as at September 2014). In addition, the government has a large number of cooperation agreements with countries in the region and beyond to control the proliferation of animal disease.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The government has taken some decisive steps towards working on animal welfare issues through engagement with the OIE, particularly by engaging with other countries in the region and beyond on preventing transmission of animal diseases. Venezuela has participated actively on the animal welfare strategy for the Americas, which also indicates intention to improve animal welfare in the country. The government is encouraged to translate some of these efforts into stronger legislative commitments to create a framework in which animal health and animal welfare can be improved simultaneously.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The lack of an existing legal framework in which authorities can improve animal welfare following their interaction with OIE-led strategies is the main barrier for further animal welfare work in the country. The government is encouraged to strengthen the legislative framework to adapt more easily to the changes that OIE is supporting, particularly in the region.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

G

OIE animal welfare standards

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence that OIE animal welfare standards or OIE guiding principles on animal welfare standards have inspired legislative production. Where relevant topics are addressed by legislation, that legislation does not meet the content of the OIE’s standards (for example, with regard to regulations on animals used for scientific experimentation). 

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The OIE’s animal welfare standards are one of the main tools available to introduce animal welfare measures and are almost universally accepted by countries around the world. The government is encouraged to produce policy and legislation covering the OIE’s animal welfare standards and principles.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Although there is no evidence that the government intends to produce policy and legislation in accordance with the OIE’s guiding principles and standards on animal welfare, the government does have some level of engagement with the OIE on animal health issues which suggests that it may be possible to improve matters in this area.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

G

Reporting on progress

There is no policy or legislation

There are no reports or evidence that the government promotes the production of reports on the improvement of animal welfare in the region. The relevant legislation does not regulate capture of information and there is no evidence that the government has plans for the assessment of current status of animals in the country.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The government has not identified mechanisms of data analysis or information in relation to animal welfare. This potentially makes it more difficult to introduce effective policy and legislation as it is impossible to measure the way in which existing norms have an impact on the welfare of animals throughout Venezuela. The government is encouraged to develop a clear strategy on animal welfare improvement and to commence regular reporting on progress towards identified goals.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no human or financial resource dedicated to reporting. As such, no structures for data collection, analysis and publication have been found that creates a management system for the country to produce a good legislative framework of animal protection. However increased activity and engagement with the OIE on animal protection issues suggest that improvement may be possible.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Providing humane education

Providing humane education

This theme examines whether issues of animal care and protection are included in the national education system at primary and secondary level, and comments on whether animal welfare issues such as humane handling form part of veterinary medicine education.

G

Education on animal care and protection

There is no policy or legislation

There are no reports or evidence that the government promotes the inclusion of animal care and protection in the national curriculum. Likewise, no evidence of literature, codes, guidelines or materials for the promotion of education on animal welfare was found in the preparation of this report.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Some awareness programmes are carried out by various NGOs in the country, but there appears to be no official support for these. There is no evidence that the government has invested in education programmes to improve animal welfare in the country. The Bolivarian Educational Curriculum (2007) covers issues that have to do with categorisation and classification of animals within the environment, but no further knowledge of welfare needs or measures for protection is included in the system. The government is encouraged to support and explore further the links between educational systems and the promotion of animal welfare.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

This does not appear to be a priority for government work and spending; there are barriers to improvement in this area.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Promoting communication and awareness

Promoting communication and awareness

This theme examines whether there is government consultation and engagement with relevant stakeholders on animal protection issues, such as the development of new legislation and policy and the licensing of scientific research using animals.

D

Consultation with stakeholders

There is legislation with partial application

Articles 34 to 43 of Law 39,338 refer to public authorities and regulate the responsibilities and duties of the “organisations dedicated to the provision of services for local domestic animals.” In addition to some basic administrative duties (including registering, filing and assessments) there are provisions by which the law defines the way in which such organisations fulfil the role of promotion of awareness and general care of animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no indication that the government encourages relevant stakeholders to participate in the decision-making process and in the promotion of changes in law that could improve the situation for animals in the country. In addition, the legislation seems to assign responsibilities to other bodies, but there is no evidence that this allocation of responsibility has official financial backing or that there is an established procedure for the interaction between relevant authorities. In effect, the relevant provisions in the legislation appear to be much more a guiding principle, rather than effective mandates for the improvement of animal welfare in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government adopted a collaborative process to produce its National Strategy for Biological Diversity 2010 – 2020 demonstrating that willingness to consult and engage relevant stakeholders.[1] This demonstrates that the government might adopt a similar approach with respect to improvement of animal welfare depending on political will.

 

[1] http://www.cbd.int/countries/profile/?country=ve

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator. The general mechanisms of enforcement of law 39,338 do not seem to apply to Articles 34 to 43 and there are no procedures by which the collaboration principles established herein are enforced. The government is encouraged to produce secondary legislation or policy in the form of guidelines, recommendations and other literature to promote these mandates and to allow the effective implementation of the law.

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Inflation is very high, among the highest in Latin America, and the EIU hold the view that a recession may be possible if inflation continue to increase. Growth has been sluggish, and the BMI forecasts that it will remain so going forward, due to a slowdown in “private consumption, net exports, and investment”. In the long term, the EIU holds the view that “weak institutions and oil dependency [and]…poor…policy framework will…undermine the business environment and limit overall economic output”. For the period 2012-30, the EIU forecasts real GDP growth to average out at 2.5%.

 

 

Date of information: 11/02/2014
Population 
29,954,782
GDP 
$381,286,247,173 (2012)
GDP (PPP) 
$13,475 (2012)
Education expenditure (% of GDP) 
N.A.