Peru

D
Peru
Recognising animal protection

Recognising animal protection

This theme examines recognition of animal sentience and the importance of animal protection as a societal value within the country, including government support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare, prohibition of cruelty and protection for different categories of animals.

D

Formal recognition of animal sentience

There is legislation with partial application

Animals are not formally recognised as sentient in this country, however, Law 27265 of 2000 prohibits causing suffering to animals. Acknowledgement of the ability of animals to suffer and feel pain is one of the first steps in the recognition of animal sentience.

This recognition applies to domestic animals and to wild animals in captivity.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The government has made some legislation that sets standards for animal welfare and forbid cruelty, thus creating a mainstream concern for animal welfare in society.

The Ministry of Health is tasked with implementing provisions relating to companion animals and animals used in research and education. The Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for implementing provisions relating to animals for human consumption and wild animals in captivity. However no evidence has been found demonstrating either Ministry’s commitment to promoting the concept of animal sentience.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has pledged in principle support for the UDAW and has also engaged with the OIE regarding assessment of animal welfare. These actions indicate that there may not be significant barriers to further progress and to legislative developments that formally recognise animal sentience.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are enforcement mechanisms in Article 26 of Law 27265 for the offence of directly or indirectly causing unnecessary suffering to animals, with punishment of a fine, suspension of permits, closure of facilities and/or confiscation of equipment and animals.

B

Support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare

There is full government support

Peru pledged full governmental support in principle for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare in 2010.

Note: The Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare is a proposed formal international acknowledgment of a set of principles giving animal welfare due recognition among governments and the international community. An expression of support for the UDAW demonstrates a government’s commitment to working with the international community to improve animal welfare.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The UDAW is currently the only international instrument that creates a soft law commitment for countries to acknowledge and respect animal sentience and to work towards ending cruelty and protecting the needs of animals. The government has expressed full formal support for the UDAW, thus helping to incorporate animal welfare into policy discussions. However this support for the UDAW has not yet been transposed into legal protection for animals to the level envisaged by the UDAW.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The relevant Ministries and authorities responsible for the foreign policy of the country, making official the country’s commitment to animal welfare, have formally supported the declaration.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

The UDAW has been given full governmental support.

C

Laws against causing animal suffering

There is legislation with partial application

Law 27265 of 2000 protects domestic animals and wild animals in captivity from unnecessary suffering. Article 3 provides that owners and keepers of animals are obliged not to cause or allow them to be caused unnecessary suffering. The scope of this provision therefore appears to include suffering caused by failure to act.

However this protection does not extend to wild animals except where they are held captive (Article 1).

Article 450A of the Criminal Code prohibits committing cruelty to an animal, subjecting it to clearly excessive work or maltreating it. The Criminal Code does not define “animal” but this provision was inserted by Law 27265 (Second Final Provision) therefore suggesting that the scope of protection in that law (under Article 1) applies also to the Criminal Code. This would mean that wild animals (unless captive) are not covered by Article 450A of the Criminal Code.

Law 29763, the Forestry and Wildlife Law (which contains provisions relating to conservation), does not prohibit causing suffering to wild animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is acknowledgement of the issue of animal welfare in the country. The existing legislation and provisions include a duty of care by which people owning or taking care of an animal must provide minimum requirements of food and care (Article 3 of Law 27265).

Article 25 outlines the two government bodies responsible for implementing the legislation. The Ministry of Health is tasked with implementing provisions relating to companion animals and animals used in research and education. The Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for implementing provisions relating to animals for human consumption and wild animals in captivity.

However wild animals (unless in captivity) are excluded from this protection and from the protection in the Criminal Code, and there are also specific exemptions for bullfighting, cockfighting and other activities that the competent authority declares to be performances of a cultural nature (Third Final Provisions – Exceptions to the Law). The existing legislation is therefore not sufficient to make this element of animal protection a mainstream concern of society.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Articles 4 and 5 of Law 27265 outline the obligations of authorities to protect animals; including promotion and education regarding the importance of respect for the life and rights of animals. However there is no evidence that a line of budget covers the mandate or that there are financial resources available to introduce relevant policies. In addition, there are exemptions from the current legislation for bullfighting, cockfighting and any other activity declared by the competent authority to be a performance of a cultural nature. These exemptions for inhumane activities demonstrate that there are barriers to improving animal welfare.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Article 26 outlines the administrative sanctions associated with violations to Law 27265. Sanctions include fines; suspension of experiments and research; partial or total, temporary or permanent, closure of the facility where the activity takes place; and confiscation; suspension or cancellation of permits.

Breach of Article 450A of the Criminal Code is punishable with a fine and the possibility of a ban on keeping animals.

C

Protecting animals used in farming

There is legislation with partial application

The anti-cruelty provision of Article 450A of the Criminal Code, and the requirement in Article 3 of Law 27265 that owners and keepers of animals are obliged not to cause or allow them to be caused unnecessary suffering, apply to animals in this category.

Article 7 of Law 27265 requires that owners and operators of farms and slaughterhouses must at all times observe humane conditions during occupancy, transport and slaughter.

Law 27265 also includes a series of provisions to address specific animal welfare issues of transport of animals (Article 15), and slaughter (Articles 17 to 24). Article 15 states that transport must not involve cruelty, ill-treatment, extreme fatigue or lack of rest, drink and food, and must give special attention to sick animals. Article 18 provides that slaughter should be done in accordance with methods and procedures authorised by law or regulation, although it is not clear whether any such provisions have been made.

Article 24 permits slaughter for sacrifice in religious rituals (as distinct from slaughter for human consumption), and requires that any such slaughter observes methods and procedures that prevent unnecessary suffering.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The legislation acknowledges many of the situations and activities that can undermine the welfare of animals used in farming. In addition, the legislation includes a section on the obligations of animal owners and those responsible for the animals. However there is no detail on husbandry procedures and housing that would satisfy the requirements for “humane conditions” under Article 7 of Law 27265. It is recommended that acknowledgement and implementation of the principles of all of the Five Freedoms (some of which are covered in the present law) is undertaken in order to bring Peru up to international standards. It would also be beneficial for the government to develop standards relating to different species of farmed animals and the specific welfare challenges faced by each species.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

In Peru the socio-economic and cultural situation is characterised by high poverty indexes and people are reported to be more concerned about food safety and a fair price for meat than about maintaining high animal welfare standards.[1] The issues of farm animal welfare and humane transport and slaughter are reported to be relatively unknown in Peru[2], presenting a challenge to improving animal welfare. Other challenges faced by the government include a lack of infrastructure, for example, sufficient adequate transport vehicles and a lack of trained personnel.[3]

 

[1] C.B. Gallo and T.A. Tadich, South America in: Long Distance Transport and Welfare of Animals. Edited:  Appleby, Cussen, Garcés, Lambert and Turner, CAB International, WSPA, 2008

[2] C.B. Gallo and T.A. Tadich, South America in: Long Distance Transport and Welfare of Animals. Edited:  Appleby, Cussen, Garcés, Lambert and Turner, CAB International, WSPA, 2008

[3] C.B. Gallo and T.A. Tadich, South America in: Long Distance Transport and Welfare of Animals. Edited:  Appleby, Cussen, Garcés, Lambert and Turner, CAB International, WSPA, 2008

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of Article 450A of the Criminal Code is punishable with a fine and the possibility of a ban on keeping animals.

Article 26 outlines the administrative sanctions associated with violations to Law 27265. Sanctions include fines; suspension of experiments and research; partial or total, temporary or permanent, closure of the facility where the activity takes place; and confiscation; suspension or cancellation of permits.

Article 8 requires owners, administrators and managers of animal facilities, including farms, livestock farms and slaughterhouses to be inspected by the competent authorities and accredited animal protection institutions.

D

Protecting animals in captivity

There is legislation with partial application

The anti-cruelty provision of Article 450A of the Criminal Code, and the requirement in Article 3 of Law 27265 that owners and keepers of animals are obliged not to cause or allow them to be caused unnecessary suffering, apply to animals in this category.

Article 7 of Law 27265 requires that owners and operators of circuses, zoos and places of exhibition of animals must at all times observe humane conditions. “Humane conditions” is not defined in the law.

Articles 92 to 98 of Law 29763, the Forestry and Wildlife Law, requires authorisation for operation of different captive animal facilities such as zoos and breeding centres. Individuals are permitted to keep registered captive-bred wild animals under Article 99. Beyond these general provisions, there are no specific welfare requirements for wild animals kept in captivity.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Although the general cruelty provisions in the present law do provide a good base for protection, legislation specifically related to minimum standards for captive animals would be beneficial. The government is encouraged to introduce specific legislation for animals in captive settings, with guidelines on housing and husbandry. The species-specific requirements of wild animals can be difficult to meet in the unnatural setting of captivity. It is recommended that legislation is introduced addressing the housing, handling and husbandry to ensure the physiological and ethological needs of captive animals are satisfied so as to ensure good welfare.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

A lack of financial and human resources may present barriers to improving animal welfare, for example, in government funded zoos.  

The scale of the illegal trade in wildlife and the resource necessary to combat it may also present further challenges to allocation of resources for captive animal welfare.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of Article 450A of the Criminal Code is punishable with a fine and the possibility of a ban on keeping animals.

Article 26 outlines the administrative sanctions associated with violations to Law 27265. Sanctions include fines; suspension of experiments and research; partial or total, temporary or permanent, closure of the facility where the activity takes place; and confiscation; suspension or cancellation of permits.

Article 8 requires owners, administrators and managers of animal facilities, including circuses, zoos and places of exhibition of animals to be inspected by the competent authorities and accredited animal protection institutions.

B

Protecting companion animals

There is legislation

The anti-cruelty provision of Article 450A of the Criminal Code, and the requirement in Article 3 of Law 27265 that owners and keepers of animals are obliged not to cause or allow them to be caused unnecessary suffering, apply to animals in this category.

Article 3 also requires that owners and keepers ensure that food and health are adequate and prohibits abandonment.

Article 9 states that municipal authorities will support the establishment of shelters for animals that are stranded, lost, sick or in custody, where they will be given attention and safety.

Law 27596 prohibits the organisation of dog fights (Article 3) and requires licensing of dogs (Article 5).

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The legislation acknowledges that protection of companion animals needs to include elements of responsible care by animal owners and guardians. Connecting this idea with schemes on controlling animal population humanely would be valuable for making the concept of animal welfare a mainstream concern of society. There is currently no legislation restricting inhumane methods of controlling stray populations. The Ministry of Health, the body responsible for implementing provisions relating to companion animals, is encouraged to further promote responsible ownership and the use of internationally accepted humane methods for stray population management.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There are very large numbers of stray or roaming dogs in Peru and attitudes towards these animals may present barriers to improving animal welfare. The lack of a culture of adopting animals from shelters also presents a barrier to progress.[1]

 

[1] http://www.animalsheltering.org/resources/magazine/sep_oct_2010/slow_but...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of Article 450A of the Criminal Code is punishable with a fine and the possibility of a ban on keeping animals.

Article 26 outlines the administrative sanctions associated with violations to Law 27265. Sanctions include fines; suspension of experiments and research; partial or total, temporary or permanent, closure of the facility where the activity takes place; and confiscation; suspension or cancellation of permits. Any person who fails to register their dog or who participates in, organises, promotes or disseminates dog fights will be liable to a fine (Law 27596).

C

Protecting animals used for draught and recreation

There is legislation

The anti-cruelty provision of Article 450A of the Criminal Code applies to this category of animals, and includes a prohibition on making an animal do clearly excessive work.

The requirement in Article 3 of Law 27265 that owners and keepers of animals are obliged not to cause or allow them to be caused unnecessary suffering, also applies here.

Article 7 of Law 27265 requires that owners and operators of circuses and other places of exhibition of animals must at all times observe humane conditions. “Humane conditions” is not defined in the law.

It has been reported that in 2011 the use of wild animals in circuses was banned in Peru,[1] although no evidence has been found of relevant legislation.

Some other cruel forms of recreational use of animals are specifically permitted and excluded from animal protection legislation on grounds of cultural tradition, for example, bullfighting and cockfighting (Third Final Provisions – Exceptions to the Law, Law 27265).

 

[1] http://www.ad-international.org/animals_in_entertainment/go.php?id=2213

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The inclusion of subjecting animals to excessive amounts of work as a form of abuse in the Criminal Code is significant. It could be useful for the government to develop more detailed guidance on caring for working animals, such as load and hour restrictions.

The ban on wild animals in circuses attracted media attention and support before it was introduced in 2011[1], facilitating discussion of animal welfare. Animal protection campaigners have also succeeded in ending some cruel traditions, for example, an annual cat race and cat feast[2] held during the festival of Curruñao in the San Luis near Lima has been suspended.

According to Article 25 of Law 27265, the Ministry of Health is responsible for implementing provisions relating to companion animals and animal experimentation, while the Ministry of Agriculture is tasked with implementing provisions relating to animals for human consumption and wild animals in captivity. There does not appear to be a specific remit related to the welfare of animals used for draught and recreational purposes.

Further communication of the specific welfare challenges faced by animals in these categories is necessary to make the welfare of these animals a mainstream concern of society.

 

[1] http://www.bluechannel24.com/?p=4906

[1]http://www.ad-international.org/animals_in_entertainment/go.php?id=1698&ssi=10

[2] http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/18/peru-judge-suspends-cat-rac...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The current exclusion of bullfighting and cockfighting as cultural traditions from existing animal protection legislation demonstrates that there are significant barriers to improving the welfare of this category of animals in Peru.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of Article 450A of the Criminal Code is punishable with a fine and the possibility of a ban on keeping animals.

Article 26 outlines the administrative sanctions associated with violations to Law 27265. Sanctions include fines; suspension of experiments and research; partial or total, temporary or permanent, closure of the facility where the activity takes place; and confiscation; suspension or cancellation of permits.

B

Protecting animals used in scientific research

There is legislation

The anti-cruelty provision of Article 450A of the Criminal Code, and the requirement in Article 3 of Law 27265 that owners and keepers of animals are obliged not to cause or allow them to be caused unnecessary suffering, apply to animals in this category.

The requirement for “humane conditions” under Article 7, however, does not apply to experimentation centres. 

Articles 10 to 14 provide specific rules on the use of animals for experimentation, research and teaching. Article 10 prohibits any experiment or research with live animals that may cause them unnecessary suffering, injury or death, unless essential for the advancement of science and the results cannot be obtained by other procedures. Provided that it does not affect the nature of the experiment, procedures will be established to mitigate suffering.

The use of animals in educational activities, including at universities, that may cause injury, death or unnecessary suffering, is prohibited provided that the activities can be replaced by other teaching methods.

The law mandates the creation of a committee to protect animals in each facility that uses animals, consisting of two members of the facility and one appointed by the National Committee for the Protection of Animals (Article 12). These committees must set procedures for the prevention of unnecessary suffering and submit annual reports to the National Committee for the Protection of Animals, responsible for ensuring compliance with the law (Article 13). The National Committee consists of a number of representatives, including from various government ministries, the Veterinary College of Peru, the National Council of Science and Technology and an accredited animal protection institution (Article 14).

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Law 27265 delegates responsibility for implementing provisions relating to animal experimentation to the Ministry of Health. The Ministry of Education is charged with forming the National Committee for the Protection of Animals, which includes members of various government ministries.

Incorporation of the principles of the Three Rs, (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) into clear and detailed legal provisions would help to bring Peru closer to international standards of welfare for this category of animal. Presently, there is only reference to one of the Three Rs (replacement).

The current legislation lacks detail and is not at present effective to make the welfare of this category of animals a mainstream concern of society.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has demonstrated that human resources are available for improving the welfare of this category of animal. There would not seem to be insurmountable barriers to further progress regarding the use of animals in scientific research, although insufficient attention to implementing the Three Rs may act as a barrier.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of Article 450A of the Criminal Code is punishable with a fine and the possibility of a ban on keeping animals.

Article 26 outlines the administrative sanctions associated with violations to Law 27265. Sanctions include fines; suspension of experiments and research; partial or total, temporary or permanent, closure of the facility where the activity takes place; and confiscation; suspension or cancellation of permits.

G

Protecting the welfare of wild animals

There is no policy or legislation

Article 450A of the Criminal Code prohibits committing cruelty to an animal, subjecting it to clearly excessive work or maltreating it. The Criminal Code does not define “animal” but this provision was inserted by Law 27265 (Second Final Provision) therefore suggesting that the scope of protection in that law (under Article 1) applies also to the Criminal Code. This would mean that wild animals (unless captive) are not covered by Article 450A of the Criminal Code.

The prohibition on causing unnecessary suffering under Article 3 of Law 27265 of 2000 protects only domestic animals and wild animals in captivity. Therefore this protection does not extend to wild animals except where they are held captive (Article 1).

The Forestry and Wildlife Law 29763 is concerned with conservation. It applies to undomesticated animal species, native or exotic, living freely in the country. Articles 102-104 of this law are related to hunting activities. Permits are required for the purposes of sport hunting and there are restrictions on hunting areas, seasons, and species based on population trends, distribution and conservation status. However the law does not contain any welfare provisions to protect individual animals from being caused suffering.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Article 145 of the Forestry and Wildlife Law mandates the National Forest and Wildlife Service with overseeing sanctions related to violations of this law. Regional forest and wildlife authorities control hunting regionally.

It is noted that the law does not contain any welfare provisions relating to hunting activities, for example, restrictions on hunting weapons used, snares or other cruel hunting practices. Wild animals, unless in captivity, are excluded from the protection of Law 27265, and it appears that they are also excluded from the protection of Article 450A of the Criminal Code.

An improvement in minimum standards of welfare for all wild animals could help to promote the protection of wild animals.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The country is the focus of considerable illegal poaching and trade in wildlife, presenting huge challenges for the government and enforcement authorities as well as causing considerable animal suffering.[1] There are significant barriers to improvement in this area.

 

[1] http://www.traffic.org/home/2013/5/30/peru-indigenous-people-take-contro...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no welfare-related legislative measures with enforcement mechanisms relating to free-living wild animals.

Governance structures and systems

Governance structures and systems

This theme examines government commitment to improving animal protection. This includes whether there is allocation of responsibility, accountability and resources within government.

C

Government accountability for animal welfare

There is legislation

The Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation is the government body responsible for promoting and implementing provisions on animals used in farming.

The Ministry of Health is responsible for implementing provisions relating to companion animals and animal experimentation, while the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation has the power to implement welfare provisions relating to animals for human consumption and wild animals in captivity (Article 25, Law 27265). Within the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, the National Service for Agragarian Health oversees rules on slaughter.

The National Committee for the Protection of Animals is specifically responsible for ensuring compliance with the law relating to animals used in scientific research and education.

Article 145 of the Forestry and Wildlife Law 29763 mandates the National Forest and Wildlife Service with overseeing the law relating to wildlife, although this law does not at present include welfare considerations.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Animal welfare is an independent issue, recognised by legislation as such for government management and regulation. Currently, the animal protection legislation provides responsibility for improving animal welfare. However, although there are powers to make the regulations mentioned above, there is no publicly available evidence that these powers have resulted in strong welfare policies protecting animals. It is recommended that the government create a cross-departmental committee or board to bring animal welfare policy and legislation in line with international good practice and to raise societal awareness of the issue in Peru. The existing model of the National Committee for the Protection of Animals (as mandated by Article 14 of Law 27265 in relation to the use of animals in scientific research) could provide a useful tool in this regard, as this Committee does involve members of several different government Ministries.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The administrative framework for improving animal welfare is present, with responsibilities for enforcement clearly outlined in the regulations. The government faces a number of challenges in improving animal welfare including the cultural attitudes to animals and potentially human and financial resource issues.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

The powers of relevant government bodies are set out in primary legislation. However in most instances these do not extend to mandates to take action.

Animal welfare standards

Animal welfare standards

This theme examines whether the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)’s animal welfare standards have been incorporated into law or policy, the extent of engagement with the OIE on animal welfare issues, and whether the government publishes reports on progress in improving animal welfare.

D

Engagement with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

There is policy

The government shows some level of engagement with OIE initiatives. The veterinary services of Peru have been subject to assessment through the OIE Performance Veterinary Services (PVS) tool. Accessing the PVS facilities of the OIE and identifying gaps in capacity demonstrates a commitment to engagement with the OIE. Peru has also participated in disease simulation exercises.

The Meeting of Directors of National Programs for Rabies Control in Latin America took place in Lima, Peru in August 2013. The objective of the meeting was to analyse progress of rabies control in the region and define strategies for the final stage of disease elimination.

Peru is also engaged with the OIE’s Regional Commission for the Americas, which presents an opportunity to improve animal welfare both nationally and regionally.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The government of Peru has proactively engaged with the OIE to receive support and guidance on disease control and the implementation of animal welfare standards. Although the majority of the OIE’s animal welfare standards remain unimplemented, the PVS facility is a valuable tool for assessing and raising awareness of animal welfare in the country and ensuring that progress is made towards this goal. Further PVS evaluation reports, undertaken at regular intervals, could be useful for measuring progress against objectives. Reports are produced according to a suitable government structure designed to monitor and continuously improve animal welfare in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

It is noted that the government has chosen not to make the country’s PVS report public. No evidence has been found indicating an allocated government body tasked with interaction with the OIE on issues regarding animal welfare improvement. Investment by the Peruvian government is required to ensure that all of the OIE’s standards are reached to protect animal welfare.

Given that Peru is engaging with the Regional Commission for the Americas and has given its support in principle to the UDAW, there are not considered to be any significant barriers to further progress.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

D

OIE animal welfare standards

There is legislation with partial application

Some of the OIE’s guiding principles for animal welfare are covered in Law 27265. For example, provisions related to transport of animals are contained in Article 15; Article 18 includes requirements for humane slaughter; and Articles 10-14 restrict the use of animals in research and education.

However, the current legislation does not include specific regulations for disease control, control of stray dog populations, beef or broiler hen production systems or welfare provisions for farmed fish, and the current legislation does not reach the level of detail set out in the OIE’s standards.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Although animal welfare is seen as an independent issue in Peruvian legislation, only a few of the OIE’s guiding principles for animal welfare are covered. At present it does not appear that Peru’s government is seeking to transpose more of the OIE’s animal welfare standards into legislation, which could help to promote the concept of animal welfare in the country.

The OIE’s guiding principles and standards for animal welfare emphasise the importance of the Three Rs in relation to animal-based research. The current legislation refers to one of the Three Rs (Replacement); however, no evidence has been found indicating that the government intends to incorporate the other two pillars of this principle into legislation.

The Five Freedoms are an important concept for animal welfare included the in OIE’s guidelines. Inclusion of further OIE standards, including the concepts of the Five Freedoms and Three Rs, could help to bring legally enforceable animal welfare standards to an international level.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The relevant authorities identified in Article 25 of Law 27265 are in place to improve animal welfare in Peru, and in theory full transposition of the OIE’s standards and guiding principles should be possible. The government is encouraged to clarify and introduce further elements of an allocated budget for this purpose. It may be that a lack of human and financial resource is a barrier to progress.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are administrative enforcement mechanisms (fines, closure, revocation of permits) in relation to those of the OIE’s standards that are covered by current legislative content.

G

Reporting on progress

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence of policy or legislation that suggests the government captures, analyses and produces publicly available information on the progress of animal welfare improvement in the country. 

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The introduction of policy or legislation requiring the production of reports on progress to improve animal welfare would be beneficial for adding transparency to the government’s management and procurement of animal protection and animal welfare, as well as allowing the government to gauge the effectiveness of their current legislation concerning the subject. Government bodies are advised to collect data, for example on the effectiveness of implementation of current legislation, to enable reporting.  At present, there is no evidence to suggest that this structure is in place in the country. Providing such tools could help to further progress regarding improvement of animal welfare, informing government discussions at a high level. The production of a strategy setting targets for improvement of animal welfare could also assist in creating a benchmark against which to measure progress.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence that the government has allocated budget or human resource to producing comprehensive monitoring and reporting systems in the country. It is suggested that the government consider commencing reporting on progress with respect to transposition and implementation of the OIE’s standards, perhaps as part of its engagement with the Regional Commission for the Americas.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no evidence of existing legislation or policy relevant to this indicator.

Providing humane education

Providing humane education

This theme examines whether issues of animal care and protection are included in the national education system at primary and secondary level, and comments on whether animal welfare issues such as humane handling form part of veterinary medicine education.

D

Education on animal care and protection

There is legislation with partial application

Article 2 of Law 27265 lists one of the objectives of the Act as promoting respect for the life and rights of animals through education.

Article 5 provides that, through the Ministry of Education, the government should promote plans and educational programmes to teach the importance of respect for life and the protection of animals. However there is no apparent evidence of the inclusion of animal care and protection in compulsory education.

Some animal welfare programmes targeting teachers of students aged from 5 to 16 have been established in the country by NGOs, showing government support for humane education.[1]

The National Council of Veterinary Education of Peru is the authorised accreditation body for veterinary medicine programmes in Peru. Veterinary Medicine schools are routinely assessed on a number of criteria, including curriculum, faculty and finance. The inclusion of animal welfare and animal husbandry in the programme’s curriculum is required for an institution to be accredited. However it is not clear to what extent veterinary schools throughout the country have achieved this accreditation.

 

[1] http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/themes/animal-welfare/news-detail/es/c/37080/

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Formalisation of animal welfare components in the country’s education system is one of the most powerful ways to make the concept of animal welfare a mainstream concern of society. In the case of Peru, there is no apparent evidence of formal education plans or curriculums with animal welfare content in compulsory education. To raise awareness of animal welfare, it is recommended that measures be taken to mandate the presence of animal welfare in the national curriculum at school level.

The process of accrediting veterinary schools on the inclusion of animal welfare and husbandry programmes should encourage high standards of humane education and help institutions to identify deficiencies in their programme.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Financial and human resource constraints may present barriers in this area. However the reference in legislation to the government promoting education to teach the importance of the protection of animals suggests that it may be possible to achieve improvement here.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator. 

Promoting communication and awareness

Promoting communication and awareness

This theme examines whether there is government consultation and engagement with relevant stakeholders on animal protection issues, such as the development of new legislation and policy and the licensing of scientific research using animals.

C

Consultation with stakeholders

There is legislation with partial application

Legislation makes provision for some limited engagement with relevant stakeholders.

Article 4 of Law 27265 requires that local and regional governments, political and judicial authorities and the national police provide the necessary support to animal protective institutions duly recognised by the Ministry of Education.

Under Article 14 a National Committee for the Protection of Animals is appointed to ensure compliance with legal provisions relating to animals used in science. Alongside government representatives, the membership of this Committee includes representatives from duly accredited animal protection institutions, medical colleges and scientific associations.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The inclusion of animal protection institutions in legislation indicates that there is some desire for engagement between the Peruvian government and relevant stakeholders including NGOs. Delegating certain authority to these accredited institutions also demonstrates the government’s intent to improve animal welfare. The support of relevant stakeholders in implementing the legislation is a positive step. The addition of provisions requiring engagement with relevant stakeholders in decision-making in the legislative development process is encouraged, to provide further expertise in the subject and promote animal protection in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There are not considered to be any significant barriers to the government working in partnership with others to improve animal welfare in the country. The government has already demonstrated effectiveness and willingness to work with partners on a range of initiatives, for example, regarding rabies management.[1]

 

[1] http://issuu.com/wspa_brasil/docs/wspa-global-review-2009

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

The existing requirements for stakeholder involvement are mandated in legislation (Law 27265).

Countries Selected
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The main drivers of the Peruvian economy will be consumption and investment. The mining and oil industries in particular will attract strong investment from business, both domestic and foreign. As Chinese demand for metals cools down, Peru may be impacted with slower growth, with real GDP is expected to come in at 5%. Despite this, BMI hold the view that “Peru will remain one of the most dynamic economies in Latin America in the coming years”. Externally, the main risk for Peru’s growth comes from “fluctuations in external demand and commodity prices”. In the Longer term, EIU forecasts real GDP growth to average out at 4% for the period 2013-30.

 

 

Date of information: 11/02/2014
Population 
29,987,800 (2012)
GDP 
$196,961,048,689 (2012)
GDP (PPP) 
$10,940 (2012)
Education expenditure (% of GDP) 
2.6 (2011)