Pakistan

F
Pakistan
Recognising animal protection

Recognising animal protection

This theme examines recognition of animal sentience and the importance of animal protection as a societal value within the country, including government support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare, prohibition of cruelty and protection for different categories of animals.

D

Formal recognition of animal sentience

There is legislation with partial application

Sentience is not recognised explicitly in Pakistani legislation, but there is acknowledgement that animals can feel pain and suffer in the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 (section 3), which became a provincial law upon the creation of the provinces in 1970. This refers to domestic or captured animals (section 2). The Act also requires animals to be protected from injury and suffering when used in fighting events; from overloading; and from being killed in an unnecessary cruel manner.

The reference to the ability of animals to suffer shows some recognition of elements of animal sentience.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The acknowledgement that animals feel pain and can suffer shows some recognition of element of animal sentience. However it is noted that the legislation was introduced in 1890 and has not been updated since 1937 as far as the substantive provisions and penalty levels are concerned. This legislation is a remnant of British rule, and the lack of recent updating demonstrates a lack of attention to animal welfare in the country. Therefore the legislation is not sufficient for enabling animal sentience and the concept of animal welfare to be recognised in the country. The government is encouraged to enforce existing legislation and to introduce more progressive laws highlighting the importance of animal protection, including by introducing the full concept of sentience in legislation.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has not yet incorporated current practical experience and scientific knowledge regarding animal sentience into the country’s legislation. The government does not appear to consider animal welfare as an important issue, despite Pakistan being a member of the OIE, which has guiding principles on animal welfare that are based on the premise that animals are sentient beings.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 lists a series of conducts that are punishable by imprisonment and fines, although the levels of fines have not been updated since the enactment of the Act.

D

Laws against causing animal suffering

There is legislation with partial application

Sections 3 to 5 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 prohibit physical forms of abuse (beating, overdriving, mutilation, blinding, killing in an unnecessarily cruel manner) and negligence (starvation, thirst, overcrowding). Although there is also a prohibition on baiting or inciting animals to fight, there is an exception for inciting animals to fight if such fighting is not likely to cause injury or suffering to the animals and reasonable precautions are taken to prevent injury. These provisions apply to domestic and captured animals and therefore free-living wild animals are not covered by this protection.

The Penal Code 1860 makes it an offense to kill, poison, maim or render useless an animal (sections 428 and 429).

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

This law offers a basic level of protection against cruelty, abuse and negligence relating to some categories of animals. However the situations described in law are very specific and may include references to some outdated practices (such as the use of phooka or doom dev on cows).  

The enforcement mechanisms also need to be updated. Current legislation includes fines that can be as low as 50 Rupees, which is an extremely low level when contrasted with the minimum wage for the country in 2013 of 10,000 Rupees.

The government is encouraged to update the legislation so that it is relevant to modern concerns and so that animal welfare can connect with other policies and social issues.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The legislation does have a direct remission to Magistrates and police for the responsibilities associated with the law, but there is no indication of an existing responsible authority for the development of further policy and legislation on animal. This may be because the law is a remnant of the British colonial system and has not been updated since independence. This does not appear to be a current priority.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of the anti-cruelty provisions in sections 3 to 5 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 is punishable with fines and imprisonment.

D

Protecting animals used in farming

There is legislation with partial application

The anti-cruelty provisions in sections 3 to 5 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 apply to this category of animals.

Some of the provisions appearing in the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 apply specifically to farm animals, such as a prohibition of the practice of phooka or doom dev on cows and preventing goat skin to be taken using painful methods.

The Slaughterhouse Act 1983, although not generally welfare-focused, does contain the restriction that animals cannot be killed outside a slaughterhouse. There are no other detailed provisions relating to slaughter and there is no evidence of legislation covering the rearing and transport of farmed animals.  

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no evidence of legislation covering the rearing and transport of farmed animals. Slaughter provisions lack detail.

This places the country below accepted international standards on animal welfare, a situation which has regional and international repercussions particularly considering the economic importance and size of some industries, for example, the dairy industry.

There are also concerns relating to trade with other countries. For example, in an investigation in 2013 the Australian government found that the handling and slaughter of sheep exported to Pakistan from Australia was not compliant with OIE animal welfare recommendations.[1]

 

[1] Report into a Wellard Rural Exports consignment of sheep exported to Pakistan, Investigation report by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australian Government July 2013

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government appears to dedicate no human or financial resource to improve animal welfare for farmed animals. It is possible that this is either because of a lack of resource or because of a lack of a general concern for animal welfare.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of the anti-cruelty provisions in sections 3 to 5 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 is punishable with fines and imprisonment.

E

Protecting animals in captivity

There is legislation with partial application

The anti-cruelty provisions in sections 3 to 5 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 apply to this category of animals.

Wild animals in captivity are also regulated by the Wildlife (Protection, Preservation, Conservation and Management) laws in the provinces and areas covered by these laws. These laws have different levels of protection for animals in captivity, with some of them making only limited reference to collections (such as zoos and other private collections).

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Legislation does not present the issue of captive animals as an independent problem for which particular attention should be given. There are concerns about the welfare of animals in zoos in the country.[1] It is difficult to meet the physiological and ethological needs of animals kept in captivity and the introduction of minimum standards in line with international recommendations would be beneficial. 

 

[1] http://pawspakistan.org/2011/12/02/meeting-with-karachi-administrator-ab...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There appears to be an apparent general lack of concern for animal welfare as an independent issue, which acts as a barrier to progress. The responsibility for implementation of the provincial legislation is left to Magistrates and other authorities, but there are no indications of policy production responsibilities in the different provincial regulations nor is there evidence that the legislation caters for financial resource to be allocated.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of the anti-cruelty provisions in sections 3 to 5 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 is punishable with fines and imprisonment.

Most of the provincial regulations make reference to powers given to police “or other officers assigned by the government” to pursue enforcement of legislation.  As expressed before, the legislation here assessed is mainly to be applied for animals in the wild. As such, the mechanisms available for the protection of animals do not take in consideration particular animals in captivity.

E

Protecting companion animals

There is legislation with partial application

The anti-cruelty provisions in sections 3 to 5 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 apply to this category of animals.

The existing legislation does not address specifically companion animals, but general provisions of protection are relevant. The definition of “animal” in the act makes reference to “domestic or captured” animals, but there is no acknowledgement in legislation that companionship is regarded as one of the ways to define the relationship between man and animal. Most of the provisions are intended to protect the relationship between man and animal as a working animal.  

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no evidence that the legislation provides particular forms of protection to companion animals, and there are no provisions for the control of dog or cat stray population.

The country lags behind international standards regarding animal protection and humane population management of stray and roaming dogs. The government is encouraged to update the existing legislation to address key welfare issues in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The main barrier is the lack of an adequate framework to develop programmes aimed at protecting companion and other categories of animals. A general lack of concern for animal welfare as an independent issue is also a significant barrier to progress.  There is no evidence that there are organs or bodies within the government acting as responsible parties for the development of policy and strategies for the protection of companion animals.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of the anti-cruelty provisions in sections 3 to 5 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 is punishable with fines and imprisonment.

D

Protecting animals used for draught and recreation

There is legislation with partial application

The anti-cruelty provisions in sections 3 to 5 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 apply to this category of animals.

The Act contains some provisions specifically relevant to animals used for draught purposes and other working animals. For example, section 3A(1) and (2) contain measures to protect animals from being overloaded.

However there are no other forms of protection specific to animals in this category and as such, only the general protection provisions are applicable.

With respect to performing animals there are no regulations except for a Decree reportedly signed in 2001 by the Pakistani government calling for the existing ban on bear baiting to be enforced.[1]

 

[1] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4558165.stm

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Working animals such as donkeys are important contributors to Pakistan’s economy and there are a number of programmes in the country to address their welfare, working in partnership with local government.[1] The existence of some elements of protection in the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 supports such efforts.

It is also encouraging that there have been moves to end the cruel practice of bear baiting, which has received support from the national government and religious leaders.[2]

 

[1] http://www.thebrooke.org.pk/whatwedo

[2] http://www.pbrc.edu.pk/introductionbrc.htm

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence in legislation that policy making relevant to this issue has human or financial resource. As expressed before, there are references to Magistrates and Police to implement the legislation, but this does not create an environment where animal welfare for this category of animals can be improved. However, it is positive that there have been moves by the government to end the cruel practice of bear baiting.[1]

 

[1] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4558165.stm

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of the anti-cruelty provisions in sections 3 to 5 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 is punishable with fines and imprisonment.

E

Protecting animals used in scientific research

There is legislation with partial application

The anti-cruelty provisions in sections 3 to 5 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 appear to apply to this category of animals, as the scope of cover is any domestic or captured animal (section 2), although this is not specified. Whether an offence has been committed would then turn on whether the pain or suffering is considered to be “unnecessary” under the Act.

There is no specific policy or legislation relevant to this indicator and there are no provisions of the Act specifically addressing the welfare needs of animals used for scientific research.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Some research institutions and the National Institute of Health have developed basic internal regulations in this area. There is no apparent evidence of government interest or engagement in this issue. The government is encouraged to address the protection of animals used in research. 

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no policy relevant to this indicator. This does not appear to be a current area of concern.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of the anti-cruelty provisions in sections 3 to 5 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 is punishable with fines and imprisonment.

C

Protecting the welfare of wild animals

There is legislation with partial application

The anti-cruelty provisions of sections 3 to 5 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1890 apply to a wild animal that has been captured but do not cover non-captive wild animals.

Animals in the wild are regulated by Animals in the wild are regulated by the Wildlife (Protection, Preservation, Conservation and Management) laws in the provinces and areas covered by these laws. These are primarily concerned with conservation issues and do not necessarily include animal welfare concerns, although there is some degree of variation between provinces. Provisions include the creation of zones and restrictions to undertake hunting and rules with regard to property of animals or by-products of animals. The legislation for most provinces contains provisions according to which capturing wild animals is illegal, as it includes capture as a potential component of hunting and there are restrictions on hunting (areas, times, species and other criteria depending on the provincial legislation). Exemptions include capturing animals in self-defence and in the defence of other persons, livestock and crops.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Although some conservation measures will have an impact on animal welfare, for example with respect to illegal animal trafficking, they need to be developed or complemented with further specific regulations to protect the welfare of wild animals affected directly or indirectly by man.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

It is positive that the relevant pieces of provincial legislation make reference to committees or boards that have the responsibility of enacting the legislation and producing policy on the issue of wildlife management, although some further clarity on the composition of the board is desirable as the legislation mostly refers to government-appointed board members without further explanation of areas of expertise and affiliation.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

The provincial legislation has similar mechanisms to approach implementation of the existing legislation, including fines, seizure and powers of inspection, stop and search, among others. The system would benefit from the introduction of secondary legislation to address animal welfare.

G

Support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare

There is no government support

The government has not pledged in principle support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare (UDAW).

Note: The Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare is a proposed formal international acknowledgment of a set of principles giving animal welfare due recognition among governments and the international community. An expression of support for the UDAW demonstrates a government’s commitment to working with the international community to improve animal welfare.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no support for the UDAW. Support for the UDAW would be a first step into integrating animal protection considerations into different discussion tables, becoming a soft law source for decision makers interested in improving animal protection in the country. The government is encouraged to pledge its support.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There appears to be a lack of political will to take action to improve animal welfare through policy commitments such as support for the UDAW.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Governance structures and systems

Governance structures and systems

This theme examines government commitment to improving animal protection. This includes whether there is allocation of responsibility, accountability and resources within government.

G

Government accountability for animal welfare

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence of a government authority responsible for improving animal welfare protection at a high government level.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no evidence that the government has assigned any responsibility to the issue of animal welfare.

There is some evidence of action on issues concerning wild animals, for example, with respect to conservation and bear baiting. The government is encouraged to assign specific responsibilities regarding the development of animal protection policy and legislation.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence that the legislation has provided for human or financial resource to be in place for further policy and legislative production, enactment and revision of existing provisions. There appears to be a lack of concern and interest in animal welfare within the government. There also appears to be a failure to recognise animal welfare as an independent issue that needs to be addressed by the government in a way that allows citizens and other branches, departments and organs of the government to understand and link animal welfare to other policy concerns and challenges.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Animal welfare standards

Animal welfare standards

This theme examines whether the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)’s animal welfare standards have been incorporated into law or policy, the extent of engagement with the OIE on animal welfare issues, and whether the government publishes reports on progress in improving animal welfare.

E

Engagement with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

There is policy

Pakistan has requested a PVS mission that has not yet been completed. The government has also nominated a representative from the Livestock and Dairy Development Ministry to participate in the Regional Animal Welfare Strategy.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The government is encouraged to increase its engagement with the OIE. Although there is an appointed representative to OIE meetings, there is no evidence that there are financial resources of further human resources allocated for work with the organisation or for the promotion of activities that are endorsed by the OIE.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There appear to be barriers to progress here. Engagement with the Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for Asia Pacific presents an opportunity to improve animal welfare nationally, but to date there is no evidence of legislative development directly linked to this.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

G

OIE animal welfare standards

There is no policy or legislation

The OIE’s standards are not transposed into legislation and there is no evidence in the existing legislation that the guiding principles of animal welfare are covered. 

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The OIE’s standards on animal welfare not only represent a consensual position achieved by countries represented in the organisation with regard to this subject matter, but also provide the necessary scientific background to produce policy and legislation on animal welfare. The government is encouraged to use the OIE’s standards as a base for animal protection policy and legislation.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no legislation or policy relevant to this indicator. This does not appear to be a priority for government.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no legislation or policy relevant to this indicator.

G

Reporting on progress

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence of policy or legislation that suggests that the government captures, analyses and produces publicly available information on the progress of animal welfare improvement in the country. 

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Maintaining comprehensive systems of animals in relevant categories is a useful tool that can add transparency to the government’s management and procurement of animal protection and animal welfare. Providing such tools could help discussions on animal welfare to be held at a high government level.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence that the government has allocated budget or human resource to producing comprehensive monitoring and reporting systems in the country. This does not appear to be a priority.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Providing humane education

Providing humane education

This theme examines whether issues of animal care and protection are included in the national education system at primary and secondary level, and comments on whether animal welfare issues such as humane handling form part of veterinary medicine education.

G

Education on animal care and protection

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence that the government has included animal care and protection components in their education system.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

It may be that religious beliefs in the country have some potential to provide a framework for education on animal protection as has been demonstrated on the issue of bear baiting.[1]

However at present this does not appear to be a government priority.

 

[1] http://www.worldanimalprotection.org.uk/campaigns/wildlife/bear-baiting

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Promoting communication and awareness

Promoting communication and awareness

This theme examines whether there is government consultation and engagement with relevant stakeholders on animal protection issues, such as the development of new legislation and policy and the licensing of scientific research using animals.

D

Consultation with stakeholders

There is policy

There are some partnerships involving local government authorities on working animal issues.

Apart from this, there is no evidence that the government has produced policy or legislation according to which committees or specialised bodies with citizen participation or involvement of the third sector is allowed or encouraged.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is evidence that the government is working with others on some animal protection issues, for example, with the OIE and in partnerships on working animal issues. The government is encouraged to increase engagement with relevant stakeholders.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The existing engagement with relevant stakeholders about working animals at provincial level suggests that there may not be significant barriers to the government working with others, should political will emerge to address animal welfare issues.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

Countries Selected
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The BMI forecasts that real GDP for 2013-2014 will be 3.4%, a downward revision from 4%. Although Pakistan is well placed to take advantage of the expansion of regional trade, structural weaknesses within are hindering its ability to exploit these advantage. As a result, investment has fallen sharply since 2007, from 21% of GDP in 2007 to 11% in 2012. In addition, growth will also be hindered by the long running energy crisis as well as continued “underinvestment in human capital”. The EIU suggest that Pakistan will rely on “textiles, low-end manufacturing, and some service subsectors” to maintain growth.

 

 

Date of information: 11/02/2014
Population 
179,160,111 (2012)
GDP 
$231,181,921,490 (2012)
GDP (PPP) 
$2,891 (2012)
Education expenditure (% of GDP) 
2.4