Niger

F
Niger
Recognising animal protection

Recognising animal protection

This theme examines recognition of animal sentience and the importance of animal protection as a societal value within the country, including government support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare, prohibition of cruelty and protection for different categories of animals.

D

Formal recognition of animal sentience

There is legislation with partial application

Although sentience is not formally recognised in legislation, Article 21 of Law number 2004-048 (30 June 2004) provides that “animals must be transported in vehicles that are deemed the best adapted for that purpose and must be taken on a route that is the most direct, taking into account their psychological characteristics, their well-being, their health and necessary prophylactic measures generally.” This reference to psychological characteristics and well-being shows recognition of some elements of sentience. This applies to mammals, birds, fish, bees and reptiles.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The acknowledgement of psychological characteristics and well-being implies recognition that animals have the ability to feel pain and pleasure.  However despite this limited recognition of an element of animal sentience, current provisions in policy and legislation are not sufficient for making the concept of animal sentience and animal protection a mainstream concern of society.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Cultural attitudes to animals may present barriers to recognition of animal sentience. However, the government has engaged with the OIE regarding assessment of animal welfare and is therefore aware of measures that need to be taken to improve animal welfare. There may be scope for the recognition of animal sentience to be incorporated into existing legislation through existing structures.  Animal protection legislation is administered as part of the Rural Code, under Decree 97-008/PRN/MAG/EL.  This stipulates that a National Committee is responsible for coordinating the application of the Rural Code and explains in further detail the structures noted in the primary legislation.  Recognition and promotion of animal sentience could be delivered through this mechanism.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Article 102 of Law number 2004-048 specifies that the transport of animals in a vehicle that does not conform to requirements is punishable as a second-class criminal offence, with imprisonment of 10 to 20 days and/or a fine of between 20,000 and 50,000 francs.  There are no other mechanisms available in law relating to sentience and there are no policy documents or secondary legislation that contribute to the understanding of the provisions that appear in law on the importance of sentience. 

G

Support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare

There is no government support

The government has not pledged in principle support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare (UDAW).

Note: The Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare is a proposed formal international acknowledgment of a set of principles giving animal welfare due recognition among governments and the international community. An expression of support for the UDAW demonstrates a government’s commitment to working with the international community to improve animal welfare.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Support for UDAW would be a first step into integrating animal protection considerations into different discussion tables, becoming a soft law source for decision makers interested in improving animal protection in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has not expressed a desire to improve animal protection in the country.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

D

Laws against causing animal suffering

There is legislation with partial application

Article 3 of Law number 2004-048 provides that “the mistreatment of animals, whether done publicly or not, is forbidden.”  This Article appears as part of a chapter titled “Domestic Animals”, which suggests that the prohibition gives protection only to domestic animals, and the associated enforcement measures are expressly restricted to domestic animals; Articles 100 and 101 provide that “acts of cruelty or bad treatment, deliberately or otherwise without intention, on domestic animals” are punishable by imprisonment for 30 days or a fine of 50,000 to 100,000 francs. Therefore it appears that wild animals (whether or not in captivity) are not covered by this legislation. The government is invited to confirm this.

The protection of animals from harm caused by a failure to act is not covered in current legislation.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Although mistreatment of animals, deliberate or otherwise, is punishable under Articles 3 with 100 and 101 of Law number 2004-048, the scope of enforcement is limited to domestic animals and to specific activities such as transport and illegal slaughter.  Further development is therefore required to expand the scope of current legislation to all categories of animals.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Animal protection legislation is administered as part of the Rural Code, under Decree 97-008/PRN/MAG/EL.  This stipulates that a National Committee is responsible for coordinating the application of the Rural Code and explains in further detail the structures named in the primary legislation.  This includes the “creation of texts complimenting the Rural Code”, under Article 10.  This body could therefore lead the development of secondary legislation but there is no evidence of financial resources being committed to this mechanism.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Articles 100 to 105 of Law number 2004-048 specify that specific infringements are punishable as a criminal offence.  

C

Protecting animals used in farming

There is legislation with partial application

Various articles of law number 2004-048 are relevant to animals used in farming. 

Article 3 provides that the mistreatment of animals, whether carried out in public or not, is forbidden.

Article 4 provides that the suffering of animals at slaughter must be kept to a minimum.

Articles 16 to 20 address transport on foot and Articles 21 to 24 relate to transport in vehicles, governing conditions under which live animals are transported, including climate, provision of feed/water, taking a direct route, packing density, and the provision of veterinary care during transport. However, the legislation does not provide detailed requirements for different species of animal.

Articles 25 to 37 relate specifically to livestock, but these provisions are concerned with breeding. There are no provisions specifically addressing the welfare of farmed animals from a husbandry perspective.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Although basic legislation is in place relating in particular to transport and slaughter, there are no specific standards in place, and there are no specific provisions for different farm animal species.  Current legislation does not make reference to international standards, and there is no secondary provision for compliance. The enforcement mechanism for the basic anti-cruelty provision does not apply to farm animals.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Animal protection legislation is administered as part of the Rural Code, under Decree 97-008/PRN/MAG/EL.  This stipulates that a National Committee is responsible for coordinating the application of the Rural Code and explains in further detail the structures noted in the primary legislation.  This includes the creation of texts complimenting the Rural Code, under Article 10.  The development of secondary legislation could therefore be led by this body; however there is no evidence that existing legislation allocates any human or financial resource to the development of policy and legislation for the protection of animals in this category.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Articles 100 and 101 of Law number 2004-048 provide that “acts of cruelty or bad treatment, deliberately or otherwise without intention, on domestic animals”, and acts of clandestine slaughter, are punishable by imprisonment for 30 days or a fine of 50,000 to 100,000 francs.

Article 102 of Law number 2004-048 provides that the transport of animals in a vehicle, which does not conform to requirements, is punishable with imprisonment of 10 to 20 days and/or a fine of between 20,000 and 50,000 francs. 

F

Protecting animals in captivity

There is legislation with partial application

Article 3 of Law number 2004-048 provides that “the mistreatment of animals, whether done publicly or not, is forbidden”, but this Article appears as part of a chapter titled “Domestic Animals”, and the associated enforcement measures (Articles 100 and 101) are expressly restricted to domestic animals, therefore it appears that this provision does not apply to non-domestic animals which are kept in captivity.

Article 39 of Decree 98-295, which is secondary legislation produced under Law number 98-07, provides that wild animals can be reared in captivity for purposes of conservation, increasing numbers, for providing to scientific research institutions or for other permitted purposes.  Certain species, listed in Schedule 1 of Article 21 of Law number 98-07, are not permitted to be kept in captivity. Animals listed in Schedules 2 and 3 of Article 21 can only be kept under licence (Article 40 of the Decree). Article 49 of Decree 98-295 identifies three types of establishment for keeping wild animals in captivity: “ranching”, farming, and zoos. Ranches are government owned but may be operated by others such as dealers or scientific research institutions. Farms are privately owned operations for intensive rearing of wild animals in a controlled environment for the needs of consumers, research and trade. Zoos can be public or private for purposes of cultural display, public education and scientific research.

Those keeping animals in zoos or farms are required by Article 50 of Decree 98-295 to “respect the lives of animals”. Animals kept in captivity must be kept securely for their survival, must be vaccinated and undergo periodical veterinary medicals (Article 41 of the Decree). They must be transported securely and in peace (Article 42 of the Decree).

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Although there are some limited legal provisions relating to the health of animals kept in captivity, there is no policy in place relating to the welfare of this category of animals.  Failure to recognise the animal welfare challenges caused by captive conditions as a distinct issue within animal protection legislation demonstrates a lack of awareness of the potential for suffering of animals in captivity.

It is concerning that the existing legislation legitimises the intensive “farming” of wild animals for trade purposes.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no policy in place for the protection of the welfare of animals in captivity. The exclusion of this category of animals from the scope of existing legal protection suggests that there are barriers to improvement in this area and the protection of the welfare of these animals is not a priority. The legitimisation of keeping animals in captivity under Decree 98-295, with very little restrictions, further demonstrates that there are significant barriers to improvement in this area. A general lack of concern for animal welfare as an independent issue may present a barrier to progress.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

D

Protecting companion animals

There is legislation with partial application

Article 3 of Law number 2004-048 provides that the mistreatment of animals, whether done publicly or not, is forbidden, and Articles 100 and 101 make acts of cruelty or ill-treatment, deliberate or otherwise without intention, of domestic animals a punishable offence. 

There is no specific acknowledgement of animal welfare requirements for companion animals and there are no recommended guidelines for the care of such animals. There are no legislative provisions regarding trade (buying and selling) of companion animals and there are no national regulations on stray population control. 

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Although some of the provisions that appear in the existing legislation are applicable to companion animals, there is no policy in place relating to the welfare of this category of animals. The legislation does not acknowledge the specific challenges that companion animals may face and the welfare problems that can derive from poor standards of care. 

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Animal protection legislation is administered as part of the Rural Code, under Decree 97-008/PRN/MAG/EL.  This stipulates that a National Committee is responsible for coordinating the application of the Rural Code and explains in further detail the structures noted in the primary legislation.  This includes the creation of texts complimenting the Rural Code, under Article 10.  The development of secondary legislation could therefore be led by this body, but there is no evidence that existing legislation allocates any human or financial resource to the development of policy and legislation for the protection of animals in this category. A general lack of concern for animal welfare as an independent issue may present a barrier to progress.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Articles 100 and 101 make acts of cruelty or the bad treatment, deliberately or otherwise without intention, of domestic animals punishable by imprisonment for 30 days or a fine of 50,000 to 100,000 francs. 

D

Protecting animals used for draught and recreation

There is legislation

Article 3 of Law number 2004-048 provides that the mistreatment of animals, whether done publicly or not, is forbidden, and Articles 100 and 101 make acts of cruelty or ill-treatment, deliberate or otherwise without intention, of domestic animals a punishable offence. This would therefore cover animals used for draught purposes and domestic animals such as horses used for recreational purposes, but would not cover any wild animals used for recreational purposes (for example, in circus entertainment). 

There is no specific policy in place to protect the welfare of animals used for draught or recreational purposes. In fact Article 42 of Law number 2004-048 permits wild animal charmers to practice their profession, stating that this is consistent with certain national cultures.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no specific policy in place for animals used for draught or recreational purposes and the anti-cruelty provisions in Law 2004-048 provide only limited protection for this category of animals. Failure to recognise draught animals and animals used in recreation as distinct issues within animal protection legislation demonstrates a lack of acknowledgement of the welfare issues and a corresponding lack of specific provisions for effectively tackling the problem. 

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no specific policy in place for animals used for draught or recreational purposes. The express permission for wild animal charmers legitimises poor welfare practices for this category of animals and demonstrates that there are cultural barriers to improvement in this area.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no specific policy in place for animals used for draught or recreational purposes.

In relation to draught animals and any domestic animals used in entertainment, Articles 100 and 101 make acts of cruelty or the bad treatment, deliberately or otherwise without intention, punishable by imprisonment for 30 days or a fine of 50,000 to 100,000 francs. 

D

Protecting animals used in scientific research

There is legislation with partial application

Article 3 of Law number 2004-048 provides that the mistreatment of animals, whether done publicly or not, is forbidden, but this Article appears as part of a chapter titled “Domestic Animals”, and the associated enforcement measures (Articles 100 and 101) are expressly restricted to domestic animals, therefore it appears that this provision does not apply to any non-domestic animals which are used for scientific research. The government is invited to confirm this.

Article 5 of Law number 2004-048 states that “experimentation on animals must be done according to the Regulations in place”.  However, it does not appear that further regulations on animals used in experimentation have been made, and it is not clear whether the intention is for such regulations to contain any welfare considerations. The government is invited to clarify whether any such regulations have been made.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The lack of secondary policy or legislation renders Article 5 of Law number 2004-048 ineffective for making the welfare of this category of animals a mainstream concern of society.  There appear to be no additional regulations in place. Until measures are in place to ensure that the use of animals in experimentation is highly regulated, it is likely that animals will suffer.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Animal protection legislation is administered as part of the Rural Code, under Decree 97-008/PRN/MAG/EL. This by-law stipulates that a National Committee is responsible for coordinating the application of the Rural Code and explains in further detail the structures noted in the primary legislation. This includes the “creation of texts complimenting the Rural Code”, under Article 10.   The existing legislation therefore provides a framework for policy or further legislative work to be produced, though this has not been used.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Articles 100 and 101 make acts of cruelty or the bad treatment, deliberately or otherwise without intention, punishable by imprisonment for 30 days or a fine of 50,000 to 100,000 francs. This provision appears to extend protection to domestic animals used in research; the government is invited to confirm this. 

E

Protecting the welfare of wild animals

There is legislation with partial application

Article 6 of law number 2004-048 specifies that measures must be put in place to ensure “harmonious equilibrium” between wild fauna and domestic animals, but this provision does not explicitly seek to protect the welfare of wild animals. 

Article 7 of the Environment Code 1998 recognises that the preservation of wild animal species contributes to sustainable development, which can be interpreted as recognition of the value of wild animals to the country.

Law number 98-07 forbids the hunting of wild animals in national parks using motorised vehicles. Some species are protected under Article 25, though these species are not specified. The practicalities of implementing law number 98-07 are described in Decree 98-295/PRN/MH/E.

Hunting without a licence is prohibited by Article 3 of Law number 98-07. Under Article 6, licences can be issued for hunting for scientific purposes (specified number and species of animals), for trade in compliance with international agreements, for subsistence and ceremonial purposes on the licence holder’s own land, for sport (recreation, trophies or meat) and for safari viewing. Article 8 does make some limited welfare concessions as it prohibits hunting using poison, using explosives, and at night.

The import and export of bushmeat is prohibited by Article 45 of Law number 2004-048, except by special permit issued by the Director of Wildlife. Terms of export and import of live animals and “trophies” must respect international treaties including CITES.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The legislation generally recognises the monetary rather than the conservation or intrinsic value of wild animals. Some limited protection is offered to particular species, specified in law number 98-07.  The country is a signatory to the CITES international treaty.

The existing legislation provides a framework for policy or further legislation to be produced.  However, animals are currently regarded as a natural resource.  This legislation regulates hunting, with specified taxes levied for killing different animals set out in Article 13 of Law number 98-07. Consequently, the legislation is not suitable to make the welfare of wild animals a mainstream concern in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Although human resources for administering the hunting legislation are identified, financial resources have not been allocated.  The overall approach is to regulate rather than prohibit hunting and hunting licences are issued for a wide range of purposes. There are very significant barriers to improving the protection of animal welfare for this category of animals.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Article 31 of Law number 98-07 specifies penalties for breaking the provisions of the Act.  A range of penalties are outlined in Articles 23 to 34. Hunting is regulated, though it appears that there is wide scope for obtaining hunting licences, and the possibility exists for inhumane killing of wild animals.

Governance structures and systems

Governance structures and systems

This theme examines government commitment to improving animal protection. This includes whether there is allocation of responsibility, accountability and resources within government.

F

Government accountability for animal welfare

There is legislation with partial application

Existing animal protection laws form part of the 'Rural Code’ that is monitored and overseen by the National Committee on the Rural Code.  Decree 97-008/PRN/MAG/EL establishes, in great detail, the organisation and the functions of the National Committee on the Rural Code. However, it seems that little attention is awarded to developing policy and legislation to improve animal welfare in the country.

In relation to wild animals, Niger has been party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna since 1975. Pursuant to this the government has implemented a Management Authority to administer the licensing system under the Convention, the Fauna Management Service, which in the past has been part of the Ministry of Water and Environment. 

Other relevant government departments include the Department of Farming, the Department of Environment, Urban Health and Sustainable Development, the Department of Water and Sanitation, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Fishing.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Although the existing framework does have the potential to develop and implement animal protection policy and legislation, there is at present an absence of policy and/or legislation across most animal categories.  Consequently, the framework for promoting animal welfare is currently not effective.

Animal protection is not regarded as a distinct issue, and is dealt with as part of a much wider package of issues under the Rural Code. Although the mechanism described above could potentially enhance and strengthen existing animal welfare provisions, there is currently no evidence that this is taking place.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The scope of the existing legislation demonstrates that the improvement of animal welfare is not a priority for the government. It may be that a general lack of knowledge and concern for animal welfare as an independent issue presents a significant barrier to progress. The legislation relating to hunting wild animals is particularly indicative of attitude barriers.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Although the National Committee of the Rural Code oversees the implementation of government policy, there are no additional mechanisms to ensure implementation of animal welfare policy.

Animal welfare standards

Animal welfare standards

This theme examines whether the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)’s animal welfare standards have been incorporated into law or policy, the extent of engagement with the OIE on animal welfare issues, and whether the government publishes reports on progress in improving animal welfare.

D

Engagement with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

There is policy

The veterinary services of Niger have been subject to assessment through the OIE’s Performance Veterinary Services (PVS) tool in 2012.  The PVS report has been made public.  The assessment noted that Niger has currently reached a level 1 for animal welfare, and the veterinary services do not believe that this level can be improved within five years. However, various measures were outlined to improve animal welfare in the country and achieve compliance with the OIE standards, including the nomination of an OIE focal point, developing legislation and supporting animal welfare organisations.

Accessing the PVS facilities of the OIE and identifying gaps in capacity demonstrates some commitment to engage with the OIE.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The government of Niger has proactively engaged with the OIE to receive support and guidance on the implementation of animal welfare standards.  The PVS facility is a very useful tool for assessing and raising awareness of animal welfare in the country and ensuring that progress is made towards this goal.  The PVS identifies specific priorities, including targets and activities for their achievement. However this does not yet appear to have been reflected in changes to policy and legislation since the PVS assessment.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The PVS report specifies that financial resources are allocated for activities relating to the implementation of the OIE’s standards on animal welfare. Structures for the improvement of animal welfare exist, though investment is required to ensure that all OIE standards can be met. Existing legislation and cultural attitudes may present barriers to improvement in this area.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

D

OIE animal welfare standards

There is legislation with partial application

The animal protection system in Niger regulates some of the issues covered by the OIE’s animal welfare standards (slaughter and transport), but most other animal protection issues are not regulated by policy or legislation, including dog population management, beef cattle production, broiler chicken production and the use of animals in research and education.  

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The government has taken some steps towards the production of legislation on animal protection.  However, the government of Niger has not transposed the majority of the OIE’s standards into policy or legislation.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Government structures exist to enable the OIE’s standards to be transposed into policy and legislation and the government’s engagement with the OIE presents an opportunity for progress to be made. 

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

G

Reporting on progress

There is no policy or legislation

The government does not publish reports on progress towards goals to improve animal welfare.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The only relevant report currently available is the OIE’s PVS evaluation report from 2012.  Although this does not go into specific detail on standards of animal welfare, it is nevertheless a demonstration of commitment to transparency and improved performance. The government is encouraged to develop policy of reporting on its progress.

The PVS evaluation report specifies particular actions that should be undertaken to improve animal welfare.  Further PVS evaluation reports, undertaken at relevant intervals, would be useful for measuring progress against objectives. However, it is important that reports are produced according to a suitable government structure designed to monitor and continuously improve animal welfare in the country. Government structures must also collect data to enable reporting. At present, there is no evidence to suggest that this structure is in place in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Ordinance number 97-001 renders it obligatory to carry out studies on the impacts on the environment.  In this way, the activities, projects and programmes of development in relation to the environment can be brought to the attention of the Minister of the Environment.  Also, the Ordinance establishes the Environmental Evaluation Office of Studies on Environmental Impact, which includes provision for the various different specialists that are required for a full appreciation of the study of the impact and the consequences of the study on all the aspects of the environment. This reporting mechanism could act as a model for reporting on animal welfare issues.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no evidence of existing legislation or policy in the country relevant to this indicator.

Providing humane education

Providing humane education

This theme examines whether issues of animal care and protection are included in the national education system at primary and secondary level, and comments on whether animal welfare issues such as humane handling form part of veterinary medicine education.

G

Education on animal care and protection

There is no policy or legislation

Chapter 2 of Law 1998-12 sets out the objectives and methods of the Niger education system.  It mentions that the education system aims to "give an education on the protection and preservation of the environment" but does not explicitly mention animal care and protection.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Formalisation of animal welfare components in a country’s education system is a powerful way to make the concept of animal welfare a mainstream concern of society. In the case of Niger, there is no evidence of formal education plans or curriculums with animal welfare content.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence of existing policy or legislation relevant to this indicator. This does not appear to be a priority for education. 

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no evidence of existing policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Promoting communication and awareness

Promoting communication and awareness

This theme examines whether there is government consultation and engagement with relevant stakeholders on animal protection issues, such as the development of new legislation and policy and the licensing of scientific research using animals.

G

Consultation with stakeholders

There is no policy or legislation

Although the government of Niger has worked with the OIE, there is comparatively little evidence on work undertaken in collaboration with other stakeholders, including NGOs.  There is a relatively small animal protection sector in the country.  There is no evidence in policy and legislation that the government actively encourages the participation of independent experts and civil society in the development and implementation of animal protection policy.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

No evidence was found of consultation between stakeholders and the authorities responsible for implementing the existing animal protection legislation.

Engaging relevant stakeholders who work within the fields utilising animals, or in NGOs promoting animal welfare, is encouraged to provide expertise in the subject and further promote animal protection in the country’s legislation.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence of existing legislation or policy relevant for this indicator. The government has not indicated a desire to engage relevant stakeholders to improve animal welfare.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no legislation or policy relevant to this indicator.

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Real GDP grew by 13.1% in 2012, mainly fuelled by a good harvest and the expansion of extractive industries. The Agadem oil field came into operation in 2012, and the country is also expected to become one of the largest producers of uranium in the world in 2014. Although the development of oil and the mining sector is encouraging, it is the case that 60% of the population live below a dollar a day. From the United Nations International Merchandise Trade Statistics, approximately 2.37% of Niger’s exports were live bovine animals in 2011.

 

 

Date of information: 11/02/2014
Population 
17,157,042
GDP 
$6,568,231,896
GDP (PPP) 
$665
Education expenditure (% of GDP) 
4.5 (2011)