Italy

C
Italy
Recognising animal protection

Recognising animal protection

This theme examines recognition of animal sentience and the importance of animal protection as a societal value within the country, including government support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare, prohibition of cruelty and protection for different categories of animals.

D

Formal recognition of animal sentience

There is policy

There is no domestic legislation recognising animal sentience.

At European Union level, Article 13 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union recognises animal sentience and requires that Member States pay full regard to animals’ welfare requirements in formulating and implementing European Union policies.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union requires that Member States pay full regard to the welfare requirement of animals as sentient beings, when formulating policies in different sectors. Therefore although this concept has not been fully transposed into national regulations in Italy, the government is required to take animal sentience into account. The government is also required to implement European Union legislative requirements which arise out of this recognition of sentience in the Treaty.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There are no significant barriers to the formal recognition of animal sentience in legislation in Italy. However there are barriers to improvement in terms of implementation of such recognition, such as the popularity of hunting in the country and the use of animals in traditional festivals. It is also noted that Italy has in the past been relatively slow to implement the requirements of some European Union legislation (for example, the Directive banning the use of barren battery cages for hens[1]).

 

[1] http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-366_en.htm

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

The government has ratified the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which recognises animal sentience.

D

Support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare

There is partial government support

In 2009 the 27 Agriculture Ministers of the European Council, including from Italy, unanimously approved a statement on the UDAW encouraging the European Commission to support and initiate further international initiatives to raise awareness and create a greater consensus on animal welfare, and inviting the Member States and the Commission to support the UDAW initiative.[1] Beyond this European Union support the government does not appear to have made any independent commitments with respect to the UDAW.

Note: The Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare is a proposed formal international acknowledgment of a set of principles giving animal welfare due recognition among governments and the international community. An expression of support for the UDAW demonstrates a government’s commitment to working with the international community to improve animal welfare.

 

[1] http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/agricult/106877.pdf

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There are no developments explicitly related to the UDAW in the policy and legislation produced by the country.  However, the government has implemented legislation, including European Union requirements, to protect most categories of animals addressed by the UDAW.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There are no significant barriers to the government pledging in principle support for the UDAW and furthering its work in relation to the UDAW.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

B

Laws against causing animal suffering

There is legislation

The Criminal Code contains provisions relevant to the protection of animals.  In particular, killing an animal cruelly or unnecessarily (Article 544-bis), cruelly or unnecessarily causing injury to an animal or subjecting it to torture, behaviour or overwork (Article 544-ter) and abandoning pets or animals which have altered their behaviour through being in captivity (Article 727) are prohibited.  Article 727 also prohibits keeping animals in conditions which are incompatible with their nature and which cause great suffering. The Criminal Code includes a range of possible punishments, including fines and imprisonment.  The Criminal Code does not define “animal” and thus it appears that this protection may extend to all animals including fish and invertebrates.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The legislation contains sufficient detail and covers situations of negligence by prohibiting keeping animals in conditions which cause great suffering.  However, there are a number of festival events involving animals in the country, some of which cause welfare concern but which are permitted on cultural grounds.[1]

 

[1] http://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-08-10/festivals-sanctioned-for-animal-cr...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There may be socio-cultural barriers that present barriers to improvement in this area, although the government is taking some steps, for example, by reducing publicity of events about which animal protection organisations have expressed concern.[1]

 

[1] http://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-08-10/festivals-sanctioned-for-animal-cr...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

The anti-cruelty provisions of the Criminal Code apply to this category of animals, including Article 727 which prohibits keeping animals in conditions which are incompatible with their nature and which cause great suffering.

The government has implemented European Union legislative requirements relating to farm animal welfare into domestic legislation. These include general requirements and detailed rules relating to specific species of animals. For example, the European Union general farm animals Directive 98/58 is implemented by Legislative Decree 95/2001 and Directive 1999/74 which prohibits the use of battery cages for laying hens is implemented by Legislative Decree 267/2003.

In relation to transport, European Union Regulation 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations has direct effect in the country.

In relation to slaughter, European Union Regulation 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of slaughter or killing has direct effect in the country.

The Ministry of Health has also produced guidelines on the transport and slaughter of livestock.

B

Protecting animals used in farming

There is legislation

The anti-cruelty provisions of the Criminal Code apply to this category of animals, including Article 727 which prohibits keeping animals in conditions which are incompatible with their nature and which cause great suffering.

The government has implemented European Union legislative requirements relating to farm animal welfare into domestic legislation. These include general requirements and detailed rules relating to specific species of animals. For example, the European Union general farm animals Directive 98/58 is implemented by Legislative Decree 95/2001 and Directive 1999/74 which prohibits the use of battery cages for laying hens is implemented by Legislative Decree 267/2003.

In relation to transport, European Union Regulation 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations has direct effect in the country.

In relation to slaughter, European Union Regulation 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of slaughter or killing has direct effect in the country.

The Ministry of Health has also produced guidelines on the transport and slaughter of livestock.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The European Union Regulations on transport and slaughter provide useful measures for the protection of animals in farming. 

European Union Directives require domestic implementation by governments of Member States. It appears that where this has been done, by way of Legislative Decrees, the government may not always prioritise subsequent dissemination and enforcement of the relevant provisions. For example, in 2013 the European Commission brought legal proceedings against Italy in the European Court of Justice over the government’s failure to enforce the ban on battery cages for laying hens.[1] 

Animal welfare measures are implemented through the National Plan on Animal Welfare, which focuses on farm animal welfare.[2]  The Integrated National Plan has four strategic objectives, including the protection of public health and animal welfare, and an operational objective to improve protection of animal welfare during rearing, transport and slaughter, including the training of operators. The Integrated National Plan recognises that it is necessary to improve the training of veterinarians and farmers in areas related to animal welfare, and it stipulates the competent authorities at local, regional and national levels.[3]

 

[1] http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-366_en.htm

[2] http://www.salute.gov.it/portale/temi/p2_6.jsp?lingua=italiano&id=1750&a...

[3] http://www.salute.gov.it/portale/temi/p2_4.jsp?lingua=italiano&tema=Alim...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has produced very little policy in this area and legislative activity appears to be restricted to measures necessary to incorporate European Union requirements into legislation. The action by the European Commission for failure of the government to enforce the ban on battery cages demonstrates that there are barriers to improvement in this area.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are penalties in legislation for cruelty towards animals including for breach of Article 727 of the Criminal Code.

C

Protecting animals in captivity

There is legislation

The anti-cruelty provisions of the Criminal Code apply to this category of animals, including Article 727 which prohibits keeping animals in conditions which are incompatible with their nature and which cause great suffering, and prohibits abandoning an animal which has altered its behaviour through being in captivity.

Legislative Decree 73/2005 sets out requirements for keeping animals in zoos, including ensuring the well-being of animals, providing sufficient space for exercise, providing environmental enrichment and avoiding stress.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The legislation relating to this category of animals, was made to incorporate the requirements of European Union Directive 1999/22 and in some areas goes beyond the base requirements of that Directive.[1]

However it appears that the legislation is not fully effective to make the welfare of this category of animals a mainstream concern of society. The 2011 Zoo Check reported that greater enforcement activity was needed, and that at the time of inspection many zoos were operating without the required licenses.[2]

 

[1] http://www.bornfree.org.uk/zooreports/Italy-it/pages/BFF_EZR_ITALY_FINAL...

[2] http://www.bornfree.org.uk/zooreports/Italy-it/pages/BFF_EZR_ITALY_FINAL...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The findings of the 2011 Zoo Check inquiry, that the European Union Directive on zoos had not been fully implemented through enforcement of Legislative Decree 73/2005, suggest that there may be barriers to improvement in this area. The Zoo Inquiry found that significant numbers of zoos were unlicensed and unregulated.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Although there are penalties in legislation for cruelty towards animals including for breach of Article 727 of the Criminal Code, there appear to be no punitive measures other than administrative licensing issues for breaches of Legislative Decree 73/2005.

A

Protecting companion animals

There is legislation

The anti-cruelty provisions of the Criminal Code apply to this category of animals, including Article 727 which prohibits keeping animals in conditions which cause great suffering. Article 727 also prohibits abandonment of pets.

Law 282/1991, the “Framework Law for pet animals and the prevention of stray dog populations”, prohibits killing stray dogs and cats unless the animal is affected by an incurable disease or is a proven danger (Article 2(2), 2(9)), and this can be performed only by a veterinarian. This legislation also repeats the anti-cruelty provisions of the Criminal Code and is mostly concerned with the prevention of disease (such as rabies) and with stray population control. This law also requires the registration of dogs (Article 3) and provides for local government to carry out trap-neuter-return on stray cats (Article 2(8)).

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There are specific provisions identified in legislation for the protection of companion animal welfare.   These measures recognise the most common welfare issues facing companion animals.  Consequently, the current legislative framework is effective to make the welfare of this category of animals a mainstream concern of society within Italy. It is positive that the government does not regard killing healthy animals as a sustainable method of stray population control.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There are no significant barriers to improvement in this area. There appears to be public concern for the welfare of stray animals,[1] and concern for the welfare of pet animals, which are often regarded as part of the family.[2]

 

[1] http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/animalwelfare/Free-roaming%20IZ...(2).pdf

[2] http://www.euromonitor.com/pet-care-in-italy/report

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are penalties for contravening the basic animal cruelty provisions of the Italian Criminal Code, enshrined in Article 544; abandonment of a pet is punishable by imprisonment of up to one year or a fine.

Breach of the provisions of Law 282/1991 is punishable with administrative fines (Article 5).

C

Protecting animals used for draught and recreation

There is legislation

The anti-cruelty provisions of the Criminal Code apply to this category of animals. Particularly relevant to this category of animals are the prohibition on keeping animals in conditions that are incompatible with their nature and that cause great suffering and on abandoning an animal, which has altered its behaviour through being in captivity (both Article 727), and the prohibition on overworking an animal or abandoning an animal, which has altered its behaviour through being in captivity (both Article 544). 

Article 544-quarter of the Criminal Code also provides that organising or promoting events that involve torture or ill treatment to animals is a crime punishable by imprisonment of between four months and two years and a fine, with higher penalties for doing so for profit or in connection with betting.  Article 544-quinquies provides that promoting, organising or directing fighting or unauthorised competition between animals that may harm their physical integrity is a crime punishable by imprisonment from one to three years and a fine.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no specific recognition of animals used for draught or recreational purposes in policy or legislation.  Consequently, there is no recognition of the specific issues related to the protection of this category of animals, and there is no clear direction on the ways in which these types of animals should be handled to ensure a high level of welfare.  Wild animals are permitted to be used in travelling circuses in the country, despite the prohibition on keeping animals in conditions which are incompatible with their nature.[1] Additionally, cetaceans are permitted to be kept in captivity whereas some other countries have taken measures to prevent this on animal welfare grounds. Current measures are therefore insufficient for making the welfare of these animals a mainstream concern of society.

 

[1] http://www.amicidelcirco.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence to suggest that any resources are allocated to this area of animal welfare.  The lack of policy development is therefore a barrier to improvement in this area. Socio-cultural attitudes towards to use of animals in entertainment and traditional festivals may also provide barriers to improving animal welfare.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are penalties for contravening the basic animal cruelty Article of the Italian Criminal Code, enshrined in Article 544. 

B

Protecting animals used in scientific research

There is legislation

The use of animals for experimental purposes is regulated by Legislative Decrees 116/1992 and 413/1993. This legislation contains provisions aimed at reducing the number of experiments, and the number of animals used in experiments.

Authorisation for experiments must be obtained from a competent authority, and it must be demonstrated that there are no alternatives to the use of animals and that experimental procedures which cause the least pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm will be used.  Experiments can be carried out only in establishments that are authorized by the Ministry of Health.  Establishments are required to submit reports annually to the Ministry of Health, including data on animals used in experiments.  Aggregated data are published every three years in the Official Gazette of the Italian Republic.

The anti-cruelty provisions of the Criminal Code would also apply to this category of animals where activity exceeds that permitted by legislation on scientific research. 

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The explicit aim of the legislation is to avoid and reduce the number of animals used in experimentation.  Consequently, the legislation is designed to make cumulative improvements to the welfare of animals used in experimentation.

However, it is noted that in January 2014 the European Commission took legal action against the government for failure to implement European Directive 2010/63 on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes,[1] which provides more detail and restrictions on the use of animals in research and which required domestic implementation by November 2012. The government is encouraged to proceed with implementation and enforcement of this Directive.

 

[1] http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-14-46_en.htm

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The failure to implement European Union Directive 2010/63, despite some significant time having passed since the deadline for implementation of November 2012, suggests that there are barriers to improvement here.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

It is not clear what enforcement mechanisms exist for breach of the relevant legislation.

D

Protecting the welfare of wild animals

There is legislation with partial application

The basic anti-cruelty provisions of the Criminal Code apply to this category of animals: the prohibition on killing an animal cruelly or unnecessarily and on causing injury to an animal or subjecting it to torture (Article 544).

Law 157/1992 makes some restrictions on hunting for the protection of wildlife.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Hunting is a traditionally popular activity in Italy that has given rise to concerns regarding human safety, protection of threatened species and animal welfare.[1] Attempts to implement hunting restrictions, for example, regarding protection of migrating birds have faced challenges and difficulties in implementation and enforcement.[2] Hunting legislation is reported as being out-dated but attempts to update it have failed.[3]  It appears that existing legislation is currently ineffective to make the welfare of wild animals a mainstream concern of society.

 

[1] http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/22/italy-hunting-deaths-idUSL5E8L...

[2] http://www.smh.com.au/world/italian-hunters-now-the-hunted-20110206-1aii...

[3] http://www.smh.com.au/world/italian-hunters-now-the-hunted-20110206-1aii...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There are socio-cultural attitudes that provide barriers with respect to improvement of wild animal welfare. However, it is reported that attitudes are changing, particularly amongst young people.[1] Whilst the country has a biodiversity protection strategy[2] it appears that wild animal welfare is not a priority.

 

[1] http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/22/italy-hunting-deaths-idUSL5E8L...

[2] http://www.cbd.int/countries/profile/default.shtml?country=it

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are penalties for contravening the basic animal cruelty Article of the Italian Criminal Code, enshrined in Article 544. 

Governance structures and systems

Governance structures and systems

This theme examines government commitment to improving animal protection. This includes whether there is allocation of responsibility, accountability and resources within government.

B

Government accountability for animal welfare

There is legislation

The Ministero della Salute (Ministry of Health) leads the government response to animal welfare.  

Each province has an official appointed to the Office of Animal Rights (Ufficio Diritti Animali). This role is primarily concerned with reducing the numbers of abandoned pets and addressing stray animal issues.

Animal welfare measures are implemented through the National Plan on Animal Welfare, which focuses on farm animal welfare.[1]  The Integrated National Plan has four strategic objectives, including the protection of public health and animal welfare, and an operational objective to improve protection of animal welfare during rearing, transport and slaughter, including the training of operators.   The Integrated National Plan recognises that it is necessary to improve the training of veterinarians and farmers in areas related to animal welfare, and it stipulates the competent authorities at local, regional and national levels.[2]

Veterinary services are responsible for carrying out checks on the application of the rules concerning animal welfare and reporting annually on the results of such activities to the regions and autonomous provinces, which in turn transmit the aggregated data to the Ministry.  The Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the National Reference Centre for Animal Welfare, carries out regular assessments and, if necessary, additional operational tools such as checklists and guidelines.  The results of the monitoring are published in annual reports by the Ministry.  The Ministry carries out audits at the veterinary services of local courts and direct inspections in breeding facilities and during transport to verify the correct application of the legislation.

 

[1] http://www.salute.gov.it/portale/temi/p2_6.jsp?lingua=italiano&id=1750&a...

[2] http://www.salute.gov.it/portale/temi/p2_4.jsp?lingua=italiano&tema=Alim...

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Although the government response is clearly defined, and roles and responsibilities are identified, there is no single focus point for the welfare of all animals. As a consequence, it is not sufficient to make animal welfare a mainstream concern of society under the current structure.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The existence of a government strategy on animal welfare suggests that there are low barriers to improvement in this area. The government is encouraged to ensure that all categories and species of animals are considered in this strategy.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Relevant government bodies have clear mandates for responsibility.

Animal welfare standards

Animal welfare standards

This theme examines whether the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)’s animal welfare standards have been incorporated into law or policy, the extent of engagement with the OIE on animal welfare issues, and whether the government publishes reports on progress in improving animal welfare.

C

Engagement with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

There is policy

There are four OIE Collaborating Centres based in Italy: Cell Cultures, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia Romagna “Bruno Ubertini” ; Diseases at the Animal/Human Interface, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie; Epidemiology, Training and Control of Emerging Avian Diseases, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie; and Veterinary Training, Epidemiology, Food Safety and Animal Welfare, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise "G. Caporale".

The Teramo Institute undertakes research on animal welfare and organises training for veterinarians.  Consequently, Italy is actively engaged in the improvement of animal welfare internationally through engagement with the OIE.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The Teramo Institute aims to actively promote and advance the concept of animal welfare protection across the globe.  Consequently, the government of Italy is actively engaged with the OIE in a manner which brings the concept of animal welfare into society both in the country and beyond.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is clear evidence that human and financial resources are allocated to collaboration with the OIE.  This shows a government desire to engage with the OIE in the improvement of animal welfare.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms to mandate active engagement with the OIE.

C

OIE animal welfare standards

There is legislation with partial application

Through transposition of the requirements of European Union Directives, the government has generally incorporated the OIE’s guiding principles and standards into legislation. Other of the OIE’s animal welfare standards are implemented through policy, such as guidelines produced by the Ministry of Health.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Although the standards have generally been incorporated into legislation, there appears to be a generally low level of implementation and enforcement (as evidenced by European Commission action for failure to implement certain Directives) Consequently, the existing policy and legislative framework is considered to be insufficient to implement the OIE’s animal welfare guiding principles and standards.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There are no significant resource barriers to the transposition of all of the OIE’s animal welfare standards into more detailed policy and legislation. However the government has generally introduced legislation in this area only to comply with European Union legislative requirements, and action has been taken by the European Commission for failure to implement certain Directives, which suggests that this may not be a government priority.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are enforcement mechanisms for those of the OIE’s standards which have been incorporated into legislation.

C

Reporting on progress

There is policy

Animal welfare measures are implemented through the National Plan on Animal Welfare.  An annual report is published online which describes progress made against each objective in the Plan.  Separate reports on animals in transport and in rearing are also published by the Ministry of Health.  However, although reports are made on a regular basis and are publicly available, the requirement to publish regular reports is not mandated in legislation.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The reports published by the Ministry of Health are detailed and fairly comprehensive.  Current reporting measures are not aligned to a particular legislative framework.  Although reporting is of a good standard, the government is encouraged to formalise this within legislation to improve animal welfare in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has clearly allocated resources to the production of reports on animal welfare and has made these publicly available. There appear to no significant barriers to improvement in this area.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

Providing humane education

Providing humane education

This theme examines whether issues of animal care and protection are included in the national education system at primary and secondary level, and comments on whether animal welfare issues such as humane handling form part of veterinary medicine education.

E

Education on animal care and protection

Policy is being discussed or developed

The Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research has a 2010 Memorandum of Understanding with the LAV (Anti-Vivisection League) that they will jointly promote school activities dedicated to promoting animal welfare in order to raise awareness on these issues with teachers and students.  The Italian Ministry of Health also produces brochures on animal care and welfare.

However, there is no evidence in policy or legislation to suggest that animal welfare or protection is formally included in the national curriculum.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Although educational resources are available, the absence of specific policy and legislation to promote their use in the education system renders the current situation ineffective for making the concept of animal welfare a mainstream concern of society through education in the country. However, opinion polling carried out by the European Commission demonstrates interest and knowledge of animal welfare in the country.[1]

 

[1] http://ec.europa.eu/food/animal/welfare/survey/sp_barometer_aw_en.pdf

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The lack of policy and legislation, combined with the absence of any evidence to suggest that human and financial resource is allocated to animal welfare education, demonstrates that there are barriers to progress in this area. Although the government has shown that it is prepared to cooperate with NGOs in this area, no formal programmes of education on animal welfare issues have been developed.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

Promoting communication and awareness

Promoting communication and awareness

This theme examines whether there is government consultation and engagement with relevant stakeholders on animal protection issues, such as the development of new legislation and policy and the licensing of scientific research using animals.

D

Consultation with stakeholders

There is policy

The government of Italy has worked with other relevant stakeholders in the development of policy and legislation.  For example, the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research has a 2010 Memorandum of Understanding with the Anti-Vivisection League (LAV) that they will jointly promote school activities dedicated to respecting the welfare of animals to raise awareness on these issues with teachers and students.

However, there is no formal mechanism, enshrined in policy or legislation, to ensure that relevant animal welfare stakeholders, including NGOs and scientists, are included in the development and implementation of policy and legislation.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Although the government of Italy has collaborated with external experts and NGOs in the past, the absence of specific policy and legislation to promote active and sustained consultation renders the current situation ineffective for making the concept of animal welfare a mainstream concern in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Although the government has shown that it is prepared to cooperate with NGOs in this area, the lack of policy and legislation, combined with the absence of any evidence to suggest that human and financial resource is allocated to animal welfare education, demonstrates that there are still barriers to progress in this area.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

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Italy was in recession in 2013, undergoing a contraction of 1.8. Factors such as the prospect of increased exports as demand in Europe and elsewhere picks up and an increase in household disposable income due to stable inflation in 2014, might contribute to a slight recovery in 2014. However, both public and private consumption is currently weak; unemployment is high, above 12%, as is Italy’s large public debt (estimated at 136% of GDP in 2013). In the long term, “the weakness of Italy’s political and institutional framework makes sustained, radical reform unlikely”. EIU predicts read GDP growth at 0.8% for the period 2013-30.

 

Date of information: 11/02/2014
Population 
60,917,978
GDP 
$2,013,263,114,239
GDP (PPP) 
$33,111
Education expenditure (% of GDP) 
4.5 (2010)