Iran

G
Iran
Recognising animal protection

Recognising animal protection

This theme examines recognition of animal sentience and the importance of animal protection as a societal value within the country, including government support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare, prohibition of cruelty and protection for different categories of animals.

G

Formal recognition of animal sentience

There is no policy or legislation

There is no policy or legislation recognising animal sentience.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

As it stands today, there is no formal evidence or signal from the government to recognise sentience as an independent issue that will inform discussions of animal issues in the country. As such, sentience is not included and does not inform public policies that could be potentially linked to animals (such as environmental or sustainable production policies).

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has not yet incorporated current practical experience and scientific knowledge regarding animal sentience into the country’s legislation. The government does not appear to consider animal welfare to be an important issue for regulation. The question of animal welfare does not appear to be an issue for the public in the country.[1]

 

[1] CJC Phillip et al, Students’ attitudes to animal welfare and rights in Europe and Asia, Animal Welfare 2012, 21: 87-100 ISSN 0962-7286

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

G

Support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare

There is no policy or legislation

The government has not pledged in principle support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare.

Note: The Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare is a proposed formal international acknowledgment of a set of principles giving animal welfare due recognition among governments and the international community. An expression of support for the UDAW demonstrates a government’s commitment to working with the international community to improve animal welfare.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no support for the UDAW. Support for the UDAW would be a first step into integrating animal protection considerations into different discussion tables, becoming a soft law source for decision makers interested in improving animal protection in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has not demonstrated interest in improving animal protection in the country. There appear to be significant barriers to improvement.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

G

Laws against causing animal suffering

There is no policy or legislation

It appears that the country does not have basic anti-cruelty legislation, and there does not appear to be any government policy or strategy to develop this matter. Although some media references suggest that there may be some relevant legal provisions in this area, publicly available laws have not been found in the preparation of this report.[1] [2]

 

[1] http://www.theguardian.com/world/iran-blog/2014/apr/30/iran-zoo-governme...

[2] http://observers.france24.com/content/20120622-video-live-donkeys-fed-zo...

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The lack of legislation prohibiting animal abuse and cruelty limits severely the development of animal welfare protection in the country as there is no basic anti-cruelty legislation that can act as a starting point for improvement.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Cultural attitudes towards animals and the lack of recognition of animal sentience are significant barriers to improvement in this area. This does not appear to be an area of priority for government work and spending.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There appears to be no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

E

Protecting animals used in farming

There is legislation with partial application

The government addresses issues on environmental protection through the Department of Environment. This Department has produced some regulations in Farsi on livestock transport, in 1994.

The 2010 report of Iran to the Convention on Biological Diversity makes reference to a National Law on Animal Husbandry, 2009.[1] It is not clear whether these provisions are legally binding and whether they contain welfare related considerations.

 

[1] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/ir/ir-nr-04-en.pdf

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The limited resources publically available show that the government has an interest in entering into trade agreements with other countries to facilitate the movement of animals (both meat and live exports). According to trade figures, foodstuffs and live animals are the third most important import.[1] Iran has recently agreed animal health certification protocols that have brought about the resumption of live exports of animals from Australia to the country following a 40-year ban. Animal welfare concerns have been raised about this proposed trade.[2]

 

[1] Pocket World in Figures, The Economist Newspaper, 2013

[2] https://uk.news.yahoo.com/landmark-australia-iran-livestock-deal-sparks-...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence that the government allocates human or financial resources to the promotion of animal welfare in farming animals. However, it may be that trade concerns from other countries can act as an incentive for the government to develop animal welfare policies and legislation.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

It appears that there are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

G

Protecting animals in captivity

There is no policy or legislation

There appears to be no legislation or policy with regard to the welfare of animals in captivity, although recent media references suggest that there may be some relevant legal provisions in this area.[1] [2] The government’s 2010 report to the Convention on Biological Diversity refers to captive breeding programmes for endangered and threatened species but there is no information regarding any animal welfare provisions pertaining to such programmes.

 

[1] http://www.theguardian.com/world/iran-blog/2014/apr/30/iran-zoo-governme...

[2] http://observers.france24.com/content/20120622-video-live-donkeys-fed-zo...

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Recent media reports suggest that the government may be prepared to take action to address cases of cruelty in zoos[1] and it appears that public interest in protecting the welfare of animals kept in captivity may be increasing.[2]

 

[1] http://www.theguardian.com/world/iran-blog/2014/apr/30/iran-zoo-governme...

[2] http://observers.france24.com/content/20120622-video-live-donkeys-fed-zo...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Cruelty in zoos in the country has attracted national and international concern, which has led to some action being taken by government authorities.[1] This demonstrates that it may be possible for progress to be made with respect to this category of animals. However, given a lack of awareness in the country regarding animal welfare significant cultural and law enforcement barriers to improvement in this area may remain.

 

[1] http://observers.france24.com/content/20120622-video-live-donkeys-fed-zo...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

It appears that there is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

G

Protecting companion animals

There is no policy or legislation

The country does not appear to have legislation or policy with regard to the welfare of companion animals. In contrast, it has been reported that the government has discussed introducing legislation to criminalise dog ownership.[1] [2] 

It has recently been reported that the city of Tabriz has banned the killing of stray dogs and cats, requiring instead that they are taken to a private animal shelter, although relevant legal provisions have not been found in the preparation of this report.[3]

 

[1] http://blog.iranrights.org/kahrizak-in-the-news-animal-cruelty/

[2] http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2065873,00.html

[3] http://www.huffingtonpost.com/negar-mojtahedi/post_8178_b_5660215.html

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

It appears that, at national level, there is no legislation or policy to protect companion animals. There are problems with stray dog and cat populations in the country, especially in urban areas, and the government is encouraged to consider welfare-friendly population control methods such as trap-neuter-return.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There are significant cultural barriers to improvement in this area, particularly with respect to dogs, which are regarded negatively by tradition.[1] The government appears reluctant to encourage companion animal ownership in any way, including through protection of the welfare of this category of animals.

 

[1] http://themuslimissue.wordpress.com/2013/06/06/iran-bans-dog-walking-in-...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

It appears that there is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

G

Protecting animals used for draught and recreation

There is no policy or legislation

It appears that there is no legislation or policy to protect draught animals or animals used for recreational purposes.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There do not appear to be any legislation efforts or policies that allow the welfare and protection of these animals to be discussed or developed in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

This does not appear to be an area of government priority.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

It appears that there is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

G

Protecting animals used in scientific research

There is no policy or legislation

It appears that there is no legislation or policy to protect animals used for scientific research. 

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

It is reported that Animal Ethics Committees were established in 2004 in approximately 50 medical universities in Iran with the objective of promoting animal welfare and ethics, taking into account Islamic principles and world trends for the improvement of laboratory animal welfare.[1] If these committees are still in existence it is possible that they could inform government policy regarding action to promote the welfare of this category of animals.

 

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20822325

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator and this does not appear to be a government priority for action.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

D

Protecting the welfare of wild animals

There is legislation with partial application

The government has reported to the Convention on Biological Diversity regarding its legislative framework for the protection and utilisation of natural resources including wildlife. Laws and regulations date back to 1925 and the country is a member of international conventions including CITES.[1] Article 45 of the Constitution is related to environmental protection and natural resource preservation.

The government advises that Article 58 of the 4th National Development Plan urges the government to implement the national action plan for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity resources at the national level and it also requires appropriate coordination among relevant organisations.[2]

The country’s constitution includes a statement regarding protection of the environment and preventing its pollution and degradation. It states that all legal and real persons have a duty to protect the environment and prohibits all activities, economic or otherwise, that may result in irreparable damage to the environment.[3]

The government passed the Game and Fish Laws in 1967 and the Environmental Protection Law in 1975 to ban or restrict hunting of certain animals. It also appears from a media report that the government has agreed with Russia some legal provisions protecting wild animals from a conservation point of view.[4]

 

[1] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/ir/ir-nr-04-en.pdf

[2] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/ir/ir-nr-04-en.pdf

[3] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/ir/ir-nr-04-en.pdf

[4] http://voiceofrussia.com/2010/02/25/4826303/

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Relevant legislation relates to conservation and to regulation of hunting activities.[1] There are no indications of individual wildlife protection with a focus on animal welfare, but rather an attempt to achieve administrative control of human consumption of living resources and some policies on conservation of biological diversity.

In its 2010 report to the Convention on Biological Diversity the government reported on a successful project to conserve cheetahs and also on activities regarding other endangered and threatened species.

The action of the government on conservation issues is very encouraging. However, the issue of wild animal welfare does not appear to be a concern and the government is encouraged to develop legislation with respect to activities and practices that have a direct negative impact on the welfare of individual wild animals.

 

[1] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/ir/ir-nr-04-en.pdf

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government advises that barriers to progress regarding conservation of biological diversity include resistance from some stakeholders because of the socio-economic complexity of the country, which includes very diverse people, different cultures, livelihood and behaviours.[1] For example, bird hunting is a traditional activity[2] and hunting tourism takes place in the country. [3] It appears there are considerable barriers to improvement regarding the welfare of wild animals. Other barriers include habitat destruction, poaching and unsustainable hunting.[4]

 

[1] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/ir/ir-nr-04-en.pdf

[2] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/ir/ir-nr-04-en.pdf

[3] For example http://iranjasminsafarico.com/index.php

[4] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/ir/ir-nr-04-en.pdf

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Penalties for offenders of the Game and Fish Laws include fines and arrest, depending on the conduct or the animal hunted. The Ministry of War can revoke arms licences for offenders.

The government has reported to the Convention on Biological Diversity that measures are implemented to prevent trade in endangered and threatened wildlife with respect to CITES.[1]

 

[1] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/ir/ir-nr-04-en.pdf

Governance structures and systems

Governance structures and systems

This theme examines government commitment to improving animal protection. This includes whether there is allocation of responsibility, accountability and resources within government.

G

Government accountability for animal welfare

There is no policy or legislation

Through the Ministry of Jihad-e-Sazandegi (responsible for agriculture matters), responsibility for activities in relation to farmed animals rests with the Department of Animal Production and the Department of the Environment regulates issues including livestock transport. However, on the information publicly available, there are no indications or evidence that these departments have the responsibility to address any specific animal welfare issues.  

Information provided to the OIE on the regional representation for Asia and the Pacific on OIE’s National Focal Points for Animal Welfare shows that the attendee from Iran represents a veterinary association rather than a government department.[1]

 

[1] http://www.rr-asia.oie.int/about-us/members/list-view/?tx_oiemember_pi1%...

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There are no indications that the Iranian government has assigned responsibility for animal welfare issues to a specific Ministry or Department.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

No responsibility is allocated for animal welfare within the government’s structure. This does not appear to be a government priority.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Animal welfare standards

Animal welfare standards

This theme examines whether the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)’s animal welfare standards have been incorporated into law or policy, the extent of engagement with the OIE on animal welfare issues, and whether the government publishes reports on progress in improving animal welfare.

F

Engagement with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

Policy is being discussed or developed

Interaction with the OIE seems to be limited to the production of reports on animal health, mostly in relation with to disease control. The Iran attendee to the OIE is not a government representative.[1] 

 

[1] http://www.rr-asia.oie.int/about-us/members/list-view/?tx_oiemember_pi1%...

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The scope of the existing limited interaction with the OIE and, in particular, the lack of legislative and policy production on the welfare standards, limits the possibilities for development of a framework in which animal welfare considerations can be brought to decision-making tables. However, the country is engaging with the OIE regarding animal health issues. For example, a representative from the Iran Veterinary Organisation reported on its animal disease surveillance and disease reporting mechanisms at the 27th Conference of the OIE Regional Commission for Asia, the Far East and Oceania, which was held in Tehran in 2011.[1]

 

[1] http://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D11560.PDF

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There appears to be no evidence of the government having allocated budget or a department to interact with the OIE on issues regarding animal welfare improvement. It is encouraging that the Iran Veterinary Organisation is participating in the OIE RAWS, which may provide some potential for progress to be made.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no evidence of current policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

G

OIE animal welfare standards

There is no policy or legislation

It appears that all of the OIE’s guiding principles and standards are yet to be transposed into legislation and policy in the country.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The OIE’s standards on animal welfare not only represent a consensual position achieved by countries represented in the organisation with regard to this subject matter, but also provide scientific background to produce sound policy and legislation on animal welfare. Incorporating the OIE’s standards into relevant legislation would therefore improve protection for animals in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The lack of policy and legislation regarding the welfare of animals in the country demonstrates that there appear to be significant socio-cultural barriers to making progress with respect to the OIE’s guiding principles and standards. However, it may be that in the future there could be fewer barriers with respect to the development of policy regarding the health and welfare of farm animals should these become relevant to the country’s trading aspirations.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

G

Reporting on progress

There is no policy or legislation

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

As the country does not have any relevant animal welfare strategy, policy, legislation on which reports could be formulated, reporting activities are impossible to pursue. This does not appear to be a government priority. However, the government does report on other areas, for example, with respect to conservation of biological diversity, indicating that progress could be made in this area if animal protection were to become a priority.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Providing humane education

Providing humane education

This theme examines whether issues of animal care and protection are included in the national education system at primary and secondary level, and comments on whether animal welfare issues such as humane handling form part of veterinary medicine education.

G

Education on animal care and protection

There is no policy or legislation

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

No official evidence was found that Iran’s educational system includes any reference to animal welfare and there is no evidence of government support for educational materials produced by NGOs.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

No evidence was found that Iran’s educational system includes any reference to animal protection. Cultural and government attitudes to animals present significant barriers to improvement in this area.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Promoting communication and awareness

Promoting communication and awareness

This theme examines whether there is government consultation and engagement with relevant stakeholders on animal protection issues, such as the development of new legislation and policy and the licensing of scientific research using animals.

G

Consultation with stakeholders

There is no policy or legislation

No evidence was found of relevant legislation or policy. The existing legislation and policies on animals are very limited in scope and none of the materials found refer to the existence of councils, commissions or working groups in which relevant stakeholders are shown to be represented.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

No publicly available official information was found on this indicator. Information on the existence of charitable organisations dedicated to animal protection is sparse and no animal protection networks were found to operate in the country. There are media reports of negative interaction between the government and relevant NGOs[1] but also of some limited support.[2] 

 

[1] http://zamaaneh.com/saberi/2010/09/post_125.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+radiozamaaneh%2FMTcd+%28Radio+Zamaneh%29

[2] http://vafashelter.com/main/en/latest-news/392-an-official-visit

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The country does not have a structure of organisations to support the government in the production of policy and legislation on animal protection and animal welfare and there is no evidence or mandate for these organisations to participate in decision-making processes. Cultural and government attitudes to animals present a significant barrier to improvement in this area. However, the government has reported on conservation projects on which it is working with others and on the establishment of a “Participation Bureau” in the Department of the Environment to assist environmental NGOs.[1] This indicates that there may not be significant barriers to working with others on animal protection issues in the event that the issue were to be prioritised by the government.

 

[1] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/ir/ir-nr-04-en.pdf

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

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After an interim deal was reached in January 2014 concerning Iran’s nuclear programme, the outlook for the “exports and increased business and consumer confidence” is positive. The EIU forecasts that real GDP growth will be 1.1% in 2014. A great boost to Iranian economy would be a lifting on sanction on oil exports, as oil represents around 70% of export revenue. The EIU forecasts raed GDP growth, for the period 2013-30, to average at 2.5%.

 

Date of information: 11/02/2014
Population 
76,424,443
GDP 
$514,059,508,514 (2011)
GDP (PPP) 
$11,395 (2009)
Education expenditure (% of GDP) 
4.7 (2010)