Ethiopia

F
Ethiopia
Recognising animal protection

Recognising animal protection

This theme examines recognition of animal sentience and the importance of animal protection as a societal value within the country, including government support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare, prohibition of cruelty and protection for different categories of animals.

G

Formal recognition of animal sentience

There is no policy or legislation

The government has not developed any policy or legislation by which sentience is acknowledged or recognised either expressly or by implication. 

It was reported in late 2012 that the government was considering producing the country’s first law to protect animals and promote their humane care and use, entitled the Directive for Animal Welfare.[1] As at the date of this report, it is not clear whether this is being progressed and whether animal sentience is recognised in the proposed draft.

 

[1] https://spana.org/ethiopia-get-first-animal-welfare-law; http://blog.thebrooke.org/blog-articles/ethiopias-fist-law-to-protect-an...

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no formal evidence or signal from the government to recognise animal sentience as an independent issue. Animal sentience does not currently inform public policies that could be potentially linked to animals (such as environmental or sustainable production policies).

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has not yet incorporated current practical experience and scientific knowledge regarding animal sentience into the country’s legislation, despite Ethiopia being a member of the OIE, which has guiding principles on animal welfare that are based on the premise that animals are sentient beings. 

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

G

Support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare

There is no government support

The government has not yet pledged in principle support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare.

Note: The Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare is a proposed formal international acknowledgment of a set of principles giving animal welfare due recognition among governments and the international community. An expression of support for the UDAW demonstrates a government’s commitment to working with the international community to improve animal welfare.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no support for the UDAW. Support for the UDAW would be a first step into integrating animal protection considerations into different discussion tables, becoming a soft law source for decision makers interested in improving animal protection in the country. The government is encouraged to pledge in principle support.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Animal protection does not appear to be a priority issue for the government, despite the fact that the livestock sector is a major source of livelihoods and income for a great many people in the country.[1] The government has commented that population growth, poverty, lack of awareness and the dependence of 83% of the population on agriculture present challenges with respect to protection of the environment and biodiversity,[2] and these challenges would also present barriers with respect to improvement of animal welfare and support for the UDAW.

 

[1] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/et/et-nr-05-en.pdf

[2] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/et/et-nr-05-en.pdf

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

D

Laws against causing animal suffering

There is legislation with partial application

Article 822 in the Criminal Code Proclamation No. 414/2004 states that in a public place, or a place open to the public or which can be viewed by the public, it is an offence to commit acts of cruelty towards animals or inflict upon them ill-treatment, revolting violence or brutality. It is also an offence to organise shows or entertainments in which animals are treated with cruelty, are mutilated or killed, whether it be fights between animals or with animals, shooting of captive animals or other offences of a similar kind. “Animal” is not defined in the Criminal Code.

It was reported in late 2012 that the government was considering producing the country’s first law to protect animals and promote their humane care and use, entitled the Directive for Animal Welfare.[1] As at the date of this report, it is not clear whether this is being progressed and whether the proposed draft will extend the current scope of protection for animals.

 

[1] https://spana.org/ethiopia-get-first-animal-welfare-law; http://blog.thebrooke.org/blog-articles/ethiopias-fist-law-to-protect-an...

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The existing legislation (Article 822 Criminal Code) presents a basic level of protection by which animals are only protected from human-inflicted suffering that is carried out in public. Therefore the current legislation is not fully effective to make animal welfare and the issues associated with the suffering of animals of mainstream concern in Ethiopia. There is no protection relating to conduct in private or for negligent behaviour. It has been said that attention to animal welfare can improve the livelihoods of people who are dependent on animals[1], and the government is encouraged to consider such issues when developing future policy, legislation and awareness raising tools.

 

[1] http://www.thebrooke.org/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/50968/BROOKE_heavy_burden.pdf

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The lack of recognition of animal welfare as an important issue that can impact sustainable development, food security and livelihoods presents a significant barrier to progress. Additionally, the government faces significant challenges with respect population growth and poverty. However, it is encouraging that there were suggestions in 2012 of a stakeholder meeting to discuss a Directive for Animal Welfare.[1] Unfortunately there is no information about this proposal on the Ministry of Agriculture’s website,[2] which suggests that this may no longer be a government priority.

 

[1] https://spana.org/ethiopia-get-first-animal-welfare-law; http://blog.thebrooke.org/blog-articles/ethiopias-fist-law-to-protect-an...

[2] http://blog.thebrooke.org/blog-articles/ethiopias-fist-law-to-protect-an...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of the prohibition on organising shows involving cruelty to animals, or committing cruelty to animals in a public place, is punishable with a fine or arrest (Article 822 Criminal Code).

D

Protecting animals used in farming

There is legislation with partial application

The basic provisions against public displays of cruelty, in Article 822 of the Criminal Code, apply to this category of animals.

It is understood that the Animal Diseases Prevention and Control Proclamation No. 267/2002 is concerned with the prevention and control of animal diseases, movement of animals, animal products and by-products, and registration of animal health professionals, but that this does not contain any specific welfare considerations.

It was reported in late 2012 that the government was considering producing the country’s first law to protect animals and promote their humane care and use, entitled the Directive for Animal Welfare.[1] As at the date of this report, it is not clear whether this is being progressed and the intended extent of protection of the welfare of animals used in farming.

 

[1] https://spana.org/ethiopia-get-first-animal-welfare-law; http://blog.thebrooke.org/blog-articles/ethiopias-fist-law-to-protect-an...

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The stated intention of the Animal Diseases Prevention and Control Proclamation 267/2002 is to maximise the benefits to be derived from livestock resource. Article 515 of the Criminal Code Proclamation No. 414/2004 includes further animal health protection regarding the intentional spread of animal diseases, including among domestic animals or poultry. There is no indication that the protective measures in the existing legislation refer or acknowledge animal welfare; however measures for animal health protection should have some impact on animal welfare.

The government has put into place a network of Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs), which has  been part of the government certified national animal health service delivery system since 2004.[1] In 2009 a national CAHW training manual, a training of CAHW trainers manual, and minimum standards and guidelines for CAHW services were produced by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.[2] A number of NGOs have also invested in CAHWs working in partnership with the government to improve animal welfare, for example, the Brooke.[3]

The government is encouraged to develop specific welfare-related legislation and policy, including provisions on husbandry, transport and slaughter of commonly farmed species.

 

[1]http://www.thebrooke.org/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/48856/Experiences_w...

[2]http://www.thebrooke.org/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/48856/Experiences_w...

[3]http://www.thebrooke.org/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/48856/Experiences_w...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

In the existing legislation, the Ministry of Agriculture appears as the government body in charge of implementing and promoting health and protection to animals. There are reports that the Ministry of Agriculture, together with relevant stakeholders including NGOs, formed a working group in 2012 for the production of new legislation,[1] which suggests that there is some government desire to improve animal protection. However this does not appear to have progressed since that date. Significant barriers still exist with respect to improvement of animal welfare. For example, poor infrastructure and lack of veterinary facilities and a lack of information on livestock diseases.[2]

 

[1] https://spana.org/ethiopia-get-first-animal-welfare-law; http://blog.thebrooke.org/blog-articles/ethiopias-fist-law-to-protect-an...

[2] http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/drought/docs/Assessment_of_live...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of the prohibition on organising shows involving cruelty to animals, or committing cruelty to animals in a public place, is punishable with a fine or arrest (Article 822 Criminal Code).

E

Protecting animals in captivity

There is legislation with partial application

The basic provisions against public displays of cruelty, in Article 822 of the Criminal Code, apply to this category of animals.

The Criminal Code also makes an explicit reference to shooting captive animals as a punishable offence, but there are no further details or provisions on animals under this category.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no evidence that the government has acknowledged that animals in captivity face specific welfare challenges. The government is encouraged to develop specialised legislation for different species of animals in captive settings with guidelines on care and husbandry, to make the welfare of animals in this category a mainstream concern of society.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Failure to acknowledge the welfare issues surrounding animals in captivity imposes a great constraint on the improvement of animal welfare in Ethiopia. It appears that there are currently no resources, financial or human, given to the development of legislation to protect animals in captivity.

It was reported in 2007 that the government acknowledged that some action is needed in the area of legal protection for wild animals held in captivity, in particular in the context of private collections of animals captured from the wild.[1] This suggests that some progress may be possible in this area; however some time has passed since this statement was made.

 

[1] http://www.africanconservation.org/in-focus/item/ethiopia-gov-t-to-adopt...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of the prohibition on organising shows involving cruelty to animals, or committing cruelty to animals in a public place, is punishable with a fine or arrest (Article 822 Criminal Code).

E

Protecting companion animals

There is legislation with partial application

The basic provisions against public displays of cruelty, in Article 822 of the Criminal Code, apply to this category of animals.

There is no policy or legislation in place which protects companion animals specifically. There is no evidence of legal provisions protecting animals in the private sphere.

There appears to be no legislation relating to the control of stray animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The existing legislation in the Criminal Code does not acknowledge the specific challenges that companion animals may face and the welfare problems that can derive from poor standards of care. The existing legislation does not acknowledge this category of animals independently and does not protect against acts of cruelty committed in private.

Pet ownership is common in Ethiopia, with around 40% of households in the capital owning one of more dogs. However, a high proportion of these dogs are allowed to roam free, vaccination and neutering is rare, and there are reported estimated 250,000 stray dogs in the capital, Addis Ababa.[1] There are significant problems with stray dogs and rabies in the country and it is reported that the government uses poisoning as a method of stray dog population control.[2] There are significant welfare implications for the use of poisoning, both for the targeted dogs and for non-target species that may ingest poison. The government is encouraged to consider developing welfare-positive methods of stray population control such as trap-neuter-return methods.

 

[1] Yimer, Mesfin, Beyene, Bekele, Taye, Zewdie & Alemayehu (2012) Study on knowledge, attitude and dog ownership patterns related to rabies prevention and control in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, 16(2), 27-39

[2] http://www.theafricareport.com/East-Horn-Africa/ethiopia-mass-dog-killing-concerns-hit-addis-ababa.html; http://www.ezega.com/News/NewsDetails.aspx?NewsID=3422

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Failure to address the issue of stray dog control and rabies from the perspective of animal welfare presents a barrier to improvement. The government is encouraged to update existing legislation to further protect, in a more specific way, the needs of this category of animals.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of the prohibition on organising shows involving cruelty to animals, or committing cruelty to animals in a public place, is punishable with a fine or arrest (Article 822 Criminal Code).

D

Protecting animals used for draught and recreation

There is legislation with partial application

The basic provisions against public displays of cruelty, in Article 822 of the Criminal Code, apply to this category of animals. This includes the prohibition against organising shows or entertainments in which animals are treated with cruelty, are mutilated or killed, whether it be fights between animals or with animals, shooting of captive animals or other offences of a similar kind.

There is no evidence of existing policy or legislation specifically acknowledging or defining animals covered under this category.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

It is positive that the Criminal Code (Article 822) prohibits activities associated with animal fighting.

Despite this, existing legislation does not sufficiently acknowledge the challenges of animals used for draught and recreational purposes. The lack of policy and legislative developments specifically on the issue of draught animals leaves a large number of animals outside the sphere of legal protection, as the use of horses and donkeys for draught purposes is very common in the country. Animals in entertainment are also not explicitly addressed in current legislation. Further policy development is encouraged in the country to improve animal welfare.

A number of NGOs are working in the country, in partnership with the government and government veterinary services, to address the welfare of working equine animals, and this has served to improve the welfare of many animals and to increase awareness of animal owners.[1] It is also positive that information is being developed that documents the importance of working equines to livelihoods and the economy.[2]

 

[1]http://www.thebrooke.org/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/48856/Experiences_w...

[2] http://www.thebrooke.org/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/54409/The-Brooke-Et...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government’s community-based network of animal health workers presents a good framework for further measures to promote animal welfare. It was reported in 2012 that a working group including relevant NGOs and the Ministry of Agriculture was developing new legislation to include provisions on the welfare of working animals, specifically relating to horses, donkeys and mules.[1] This suggests that, given political will and sufficient resources, some improvement may be possible.

Barriers to improvement of the welfare of working animals include a lack of knowledge about the management and use of equines amongst animal owners.[2] Additional barriers are presented by the lack of recognition of the importance of working animals amongst decision makers and negative attitudes towards such animals.[3]

 

[1] http://blog.thebrooke.org/blog-articles/ethiopias-fist-law-to-protect-an...

[2] http://www.thebrooke.org/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/54409/The-Brooke-Et...

[3] http://www.thebrooke.org/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/54409/The-Brooke-Et...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Breach of the prohibition on organising shows involving cruelty to animals, or committing cruelty to animals in a public place, is punishable with a fine or arrest (Article 822 Criminal Code). It appears that there are no policy instruments to help people care for their animals or any incentives to assist with enforcing the Criminal Code.

G

Protecting animals used in scientific research

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence that issues pertaining to the welfare of animals used for scientific research are addressed in legislation.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There are no guidelines on animals used in scientific research for this country, including educational, cosmetic or other forms of surgical or invasive manipulation. It appears that there has been no attempt made to regulate the use of animals in research, falling behind international trends and animal welfare standards. The government is encouraged to develop legal provisions on animals used in research. 

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no indication or evidence of existing financial or human resource allocated to develop policy and legislation relevant to this indicator. This does not appear to be a priority for the government.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no evidence of policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

E

Protecting the welfare of wild animals

There is legislation

Proclamation no. 192/1980 provides for the conservation and development of forest and wildlife resources. Article 11 states that the objective of the Forest and Wildlife Conservation and Development Authority is to ensure proper protection, development, rational utilisation and management of forest and wildlife of the country. This Proclamation is concerned with preservation of species of wild animals and prohibits hunting without licence (Article 22). However there is no legislation or policy focused specifically on welfare issues associated with wild animals, and it is not clear whether hunting licences include any welfare-related conditions or restrictions on methods and time of hunting.

The government advises that the Ministry of Culture and Tourism has objectives and activities with the aim of increasing revenue from wildlife tourism and eco-tourism and with respect to decreasing illegal hunting and trade of wild animal and their products, and protecting endangered wild animal species.[1] Government policy includes a number of protected areas where hunting is controlled.[2]

 

[1] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/et/et-nr-05-en.pdf

[2] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/et/et-nr-05-en.pdf

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The legislation recognises the value of wild animals, however legislation is centred on natural resource management, and measures to protect the welfare of individual animals are not included.  Control over hunting methods could help to prevent inhumane killing, and would go further to protect welfare. Currently, the legislation is not suitable to make the welfare of wild animals of mainstream concern to society. It is encouraging that the government has established several protected areas (PAs) to protect the country’s biodiversity, including national parks and areas in which hunting is controlled. [1]

 

[1] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/et/et-nr-05-en.pdf

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government advises that unsustainable utilisation (over grazing/browsing, harvesting and hunting) of biological resources is one of the major threats to biodiversity and ecosystems in Ethiopia.[1] These issues combined with poverty, low literacy and high unemployment create pressure on the country’s biodiversity and threaten wild animal welfare.

 

[1] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/et/et-nr-05-en.pdf

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Violations of Proclamation 192/1980 are publishable with imprisonment of up to two years and/or with fine.

Governance structures and systems

Governance structures and systems

This theme examines government commitment to improving animal protection. This includes whether there is allocation of responsibility, accountability and resources within government.

D

Government accountability for animal welfare

There is legislation with partial application

The Ministry of Agriculture in Ethiopia has some responsibility for the implementation of some relevant legislation. However these mandates are mostly in connection with animal health protection. There is no evidence of specific regulations on animal welfare responsibilities, although it was reported that in 2012 the Ministry participated in a working group on the development of animal welfare legislative proposals.[1]

The Forest and Wildlife Conservation and Development Authority has the responsibility to implement legislation for natural resource management, including issues affecting wildlife and unlawful hunting. However, these regulations protect animals as a resource and not their welfare. The focus of the legislation could be broadened to impart higher value on the wild animals of Ethiopia, as no guidance as to treatment of animals is present in the provisions specifically focussing on wild animals.

 

[1] http://blog.thebrooke.org/blog-articles/ethiopias-fist-law-to-protect-an...

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The existing legislation provides a potential framework for assignment of responsibility for legislation development for animal protection. Developing this framework could create authorities specifically responsible for animal welfare in the country. There are links between animal health and animal welfare that could be further explored.  Prevention of animal disease as well as safe and effective veterinary treatment is crucial for providing proper care for animals, and promoting the protection of animal health in turn encourages the consideration of animal welfare. It is however important for animal welfare to be recognised as an independent issue with specific government responsibility for implementation in relation to all categories of animals.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is some evidence of existing allocation of responsibilities for issues closely related to animal welfare, such as the health of farm animals and the conservation of wild animals. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of direct responsibility for animal welfare promotion in a government body in the country and there is no evidence of financial resource allocated to animal welfare development and policy. The reports of the involvement of the Ministry of Agriculture in the development of animal protection legislative proposals in 2012 suggest that some improvement may be possible, but this does not appear to extend to all categories of animals and it is not clear what progress has been made since that date.[1]

 

[1] http://blog.thebrooke.org/blog-articles/ethiopias-fist-law-to-protect-an...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

It appears that there is no legal mandate placing responsibility for animal protection on a specific government body or bodies.

Animal welfare standards

Animal welfare standards

This theme examines whether the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)’s animal welfare standards have been incorporated into law or policy, the extent of engagement with the OIE on animal welfare issues, and whether the government publishes reports on progress in improving animal welfare.

D

Engagement with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

There is policy

The country shows some level of engagement with OIE initiatives. A regional seminar “Training of national focal points of the OIE for animal welfare” was hosted in 2010 in the Ethiopia capital, Addis Ababa.[1] The veterinary services of Ethiopia have been subject to assessment through the OIE’s Performance Veterinary Services (PVS) tool. Accessing the PVS facilities of the OIE and identifying gaps in capacity demonstrates a commitment to engagement with the OIE, although it is noted that the government did not authorise the OIE to make the report results fully public.

However, there remains a lack of legislative and policy production on animal welfare with regard to the OIE’s guiding principles for animal welfare and its animal welfare standards.

 

[1] http://www.rr-africa.oie.int/docspdf/en/2010/WEL/report.pdf

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is evidence of the country’s interest in interacting with the OIE in particular on issues affecting animal health. In 2008 Ethiopia received a certificate from the OIE for eradication of the disease rinderpest.[1]

However, there is a lack of legislative and policy production on animal welfare and no inclusion of the welfare standards, preventing the possibility for development of a framework in which animal welfare considerations are brought forward to decision-making tables.

No evidence was found according to which the government has allocated budget or a department to interact with the OIE on issues regarding animal welfare improvement.

 

[1] http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Publications_%26_Documentation/docs/pdf/bulletin/Bull_2011-2-ENG.pdf

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The existing scope of engagement with the OIE suggests that it may be possible to extend this to the area of animal welfare protection.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

G

OIE animal welfare standards

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence according to which implementation of the OIE’s standards and guiding principles can be found in legislation in the country.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Transposition of the OIE’s standards and guiding principles into legislation has not taken place.

The OIE’s standards on animal welfare not only represent a consensual position achieved by countries represented in the organisation with regard to this subject matter, but also provide scientific background used to produce sound policy and legislation on animal welfare. Incorporating the OIE’s standards into legislation could therefore improve protection for animals in the country and bring Ethiopia’s legislation in line with other countries in terms of standards of animal welfare.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence of existing policy or legislation relevant to this indicator which presents a structure by which financial resource or human resource is allocated to promote animal welfare issues covered in the OIE’s standards or guiding principles.

The Animal Diseases Prevention and Control Proclamation No. 267/2002 outlines standards on animal disease prevention and control in accordance with the OIE’s Biosecurity and Animal Health recommendations. This suggests that the government recognises the role that the OIE can play in improving relevant legislation relating to animals, which gives rise to hope that it may be possible for similar implementation exercises to take place in relation to animal welfare.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator. 

G

Reporting on progress

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence of policy or legislation that suggests the government captures, analyses and produces publicly available information on the progress of animal welfare improvement in the country. 

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The implementation of a policy or legislation requiring the production of regular reports would be beneficial for adding transparency to the government’s management and procurement of animal protection and animal welfare. Providing such tools would also help discussions on animal welfare to be held at a high government level. The government is encouraged to develop a coherent strategy on animal health and welfare and to commence reporting on progress against that strategy.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence that the government has allocated budget or human resource to producing comprehensive monitoring and reporting systems in the country. This does not appear to be a government priority.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Providing humane education

Providing humane education

This theme examines whether issues of animal care and protection are included in the national education system at primary and secondary level, and comments on whether animal welfare issues such as humane handling form part of veterinary medicine education.

G

Education on animal care and protection

There is no policy or legislation

There is no mention of humane care or animal protection in the Federal Democratic Republic Government of Ethiopia Education and Training Policy (1994), which sets out the objectives and methods of the Ethiopian education system.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Formalisation of animal welfare components in the country’s education system is one of the most powerful ways to make the concept of animal welfare of mainstream concern to society. In the case of Ethiopia, there is no evidence of formal education plans or curriculums with animal welfare content.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The existing network of community-based animal health workers and partnerships with NGOs present an opportunity for education regarding animal care and protection amongst animal owners. There are a number of animal welfare organisations promoting education and awareness on animal welfare issues, for example, the Brooke,[1] which work in partnership with the government using a network of community-based animal health workers.

It may be however that resources are not available for integration of animal care and protection within the national educations system, although the government has commented in its May 2014 report to the Convention on Biodiversity that awareness raising of the general public and decision makers on biodiversity issues has been conducted using various mediums at different times and levels.[2] The government advises that during the past ten years more than 30 universities have been established with most including biodiversity related colleges and departments.[3] This indicates that action might be taken regarding animal care and protection should these issues become a government priority.

 

[1]http://www.thebrooke.org/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/48856/Experiences_w...

[2] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/et/et-nr-05-en.pdf

[3] http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/et/et-nr-05-en.pdf

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no evidence of existing policy or legislation relevant to this indicator. 

Promoting communication and awareness

Promoting communication and awareness

This theme examines whether there is government consultation and engagement with relevant stakeholders on animal protection issues, such as the development of new legislation and policy and the licensing of scientific research using animals.

F

Consultation with stakeholders

There is no policy or legislation

Current legislation does not prevent participation of experts and relevant stakeholders, but does not require decision-making processes to be accompanied with consultation of wider sectors.

The Comprehensive Justice System Reform Program 2005, which assesses the performance of the various institutions of justice and proposes reforms, states that sector ministries should consult stakeholders as part of the process of drafting laws.[1] However, there is currently no evidence of legislation requiring participation of experts and relevant NGO stakeholders to develop policy and legislation relevant to animal welfare and animal protection.

 

[1] http://www.cilc.nl/uploads/CILC%20Ethiopia%20D%2005-0103.pdf Comprehensive Justice System Reform Program, Ministry of Capacity Building, 2005

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is some evidence of previous engagement of the Ministry of Agriculture with relevant stakeholders, in a 2012 working group on the proposed production of animal protection legislation.[1] Further engagement of relevant stakeholders, including NGOs promoting animal protection, is encouraged. The government is particularly encouraged to build on the work undertaken as part of the working group in 2012.

 

[1] http://blog.thebrooke.org/blog-articles/ethiopias-fist-law-to-protect-an...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Previous engagement between the government and relevant stakeholders on legislative proposals suggests that some improvement in this area may be possible.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no evidence of policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Countries Selected
Select up to four countries and then select 'Compare' to start contrasting animal welfare standards

Ethiopia in recent years has been one of the fastest growing economies in Africa. 2012 saw Ethiopia’s economy grow at 6.9%, although the pace has slowed through 2013 and a further reduction in growth forecast for 2014. Inflation has also decreased from 39.2% in November 2011 to 10.3% in February 2013. The private sector is not very developed due to, among numerous factors, a lack of access to credit and a concentrated banking sector with on large public bank holding 70% of assets.  The Economist Intelligence Unit reports that according to the Ethiopian finance minister, “Ethiopia will boost spending by 12%, to Birr159.4bn (US$8.5bn), in the fiscal year beginning July 8th, with approximately one-third of the total being allocated to the upgrading of the road network”.

 

Date of information: 11/02/2014
Population 
91,728,849
GDP 
$43,133,073,100
GDP (PPP) 
$1,139
Education expenditure (% of GDP) 
4.7 (2010)