Egypt

F
Egypt
Recognising animal protection

Recognising animal protection

This theme examines recognition of animal sentience and the importance of animal protection as a societal value within the country, including government support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare, prohibition of cruelty and protection for different categories of animals.

G

Formal recognition of animal sentience

There is no policy or legislation

It is reported that Law 53 of 1966, also known as The Law of Agriculture, refers in the Animal Health Section, Article 119 to cruelty to animals stating that it is forbidden to exercise cruelty to animals.[1] However, there appears to be no recognition in law of animal sentience, for example, there are no statements that refer to pain or suffering.

 

[1] https://www.cbd.int/doc/world/eg/eg-nr-01-en.pdf

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Currently legislation does not recognise that animals are sentient.

It may be that further legislation will be developed because the new constitution of Egypt, adopted in January 2014, includes in Article 45 a commitment from the State to preserve plant, animal and fish resources and protect those under the threat of extinction or danger and to guarantee humane treatment of animals, all according to the law.

However, the public in the country does not generally regard animal welfare as an issue. Additionally people are reported not to value their working animals very highly, possible because of limited education and poverty.[1]

 

[1] http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/animalwelfare/global%20perspect...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The inclusion of a guarantee of humane protection of animals in the country’s constitution indicates that progress may be possible. There are also several NGOs campaigning to protect animals, for example, Brooke Hospital for Animals and the Society of Protecting Animal Rights in Egypt.[1]

 

[1] http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/animalwelfare/global%20perspect...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

G

Support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare

There is no government support

The government has not pledged in principle support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare.

Note: The Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare is a proposed formal international acknowledgment of a set of principles giving animal welfare due recognition among governments and the international community. An expression of support for the UDAW demonstrates a government’s commitment to working with the international community to improve animal welfare.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no support for the UDAW. Support for the UDAW would be a first step into integrating animal protection considerations into different discussion tables, becoming a soft law source for decision makers interested in improving animal protection in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has not expressed a desire to improve animal protection in the country through support for the UDAW. There appear to be barriers to improvement.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

D

Laws against causing animal suffering

There is legislation with partial application

The Agricultural Code of 1966 includes a ban in Article 119 which provides that it is forbidden to exercise cruelty to animals. This requires that the Ministry of Agriculture shall specify, by decree, the cases to which this applies.

Article 355 and 357 of the Penal Code include criminal penalties for deliberately killing or poisoning some animals: a riding animal, a carrying beast, a towing beast, any other type of livestock, or any tame animal.

Legislation does not appear to include provisions prohibiting causing suffering through failure to act.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The existing legislation presents an imprecise framework of protection and there are no specified provisions for other conducts or for negligent behaviour.

However, it may be that the commitment in the new constitution for the State to guarantee humane treatment of animals will lead to further progress.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence of financial or human resource allocated to the protection of animals from cruelty and neglect in the country.

Socio-cultural attitudes to animals in the country may present barriers to progress, because animal welfare is not regarded as an issue by the public.[1] Poverty and a lack of education may also hinder progress. For example, traditional practices that inflict suffering of animals are in use, such as “firing” of horses.[2]

The lack of serious penalties means that the legislative protections for animals that do exist are likely to be inadequate in terms of deterrent value.

 

[1] http://thecairopost.com/news/102910/inside_egypt/mission-to-protect-anim...

[2] http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/animalwelfare/global%20perspect...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

The Penal Code includes fines and imprisonment, which are limited depending on the specific conduct.

D

Protecting animals used in farming

There is legislation with partial application

The Agricultural Code of 1966 includes a number of provisions with regard to animal health, including specific references to animal used for farming. For instance, Article 117 specifies that it is forbidden to hunt birds that are useful to agriculture. 

In the same law, Articles 124 to 138 make provisions regarding the health of animals used in agriculture, which include quarantine procedures and mandates on vaccination, destruction of animals and meat products and other measures in relation to slaughter in abattoirs.

There is no evidence of existing regulations with regard to slaughter that acknowledge animal welfare issues or prescribe minimum standards to ensure protection of good welfare. Article 137 of the Agricultural Code of 1966 gives the Ministry of Agriculture some powers to regulate slaughter that do not include reference to animal welfare.

It is not clear whether decrees have been made under Article 119 to apply the anti-cruelty provision of that Article to part or all of this category of animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The existing legislation is not currently sufficient to protect the welfare of animals used in farming during rearing, transport and slaughter.  In this respect the country lags behind good international minimum standards.

The lack of animal welfare standards in the country has caused concern internationally and led to Australia ceasing exports in 2006.[1] In 2013 evidence of extreme cruelty in two slaughterhouses receiving sheep from Australia was published causing concern in Australia and internationally.[2] A report published in 2014 found that one of the two slaughterhouses had failed to apply international minimum standards.[3]

The government has informed during consultation that initial steps to change this are currently undertaken. There is a development plan organized between the government and the OIE to offer training courses on animal welfare in slaughter houses. The courses should cover the full chain of production (from transport to final product commercialisation) and it is expected to bring Egypt closer to international slaughter houses standards.

 

[1] http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/australia-to-restart-li...

[2] http://www.stockjournal.com.au/news/agriculture/cattle/beef/egypt-ban-sparks-debate/2656695.aspx

[3] http://www.thedairysite.com/news/45362/one-of-two-egyptian-slaughterhous...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no indication of human or financial resource dedicated to animal welfare by the Ministry of Agriculture, which is the designated responsible authority for promoting the health and protection of animals.

The lack of recognition of the importance of animal welfare as an issue separate to those of animal health and disease control is a considerable barrier to progress.

The lack of government action on transport and slaughter legislation for farm animals despite a multi-year ban by the Australian government on the live export of sheep to Egypt, imposed because of animal cruelty concern, indicates that there are significant barriers to progress. In these circumstances even trade drivers secured no progress.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

The Agricultural Code contains enforcement mechanisms for the Articles referred to, in Articles 140 to 149. These mechanisms mostly consist of fines and imprisonment measures. There is no indication of complementary policy and official literature on welfare measures for animals used in farming.

G

Protecting animals in captivity

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence of legislation relevant to this indicator.

It is not clear whether decrees have been made under Article 119 of the Agriculture Code of 1966 to apply the anti-cruelty provision of that Article to part or to all of this category of animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no legislative acknowledgement of animal welfare issues affecting animals in captivity. The lack of development of regulations on the welfare of wild animals in general prevents discussions relevant to address welfare issues of captive animals, for example, those in zoos in the country about which there are serious welfare concerns.[1]

There are encouraging indications from a project at the government-owned Giza Zoo, which could be adapted given resources and political will to other government-owned zoos. Giza Zoo is the largest government zoo in Egypt and is the centre of the Egyptian Department of Zoos and Wildlife Services. Giza has been successful in working with an international NGO, Wild Welfare, in a bid to raise welfare standards at the zoo.[2]

 

[1] http://www.egyptindependent.com//news/zoo-problems-campaign-calls-shutdo...

[2] http://www.wildwelfare.org/#!projects-in-egypt/c1rd

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence of financial or human resource dedicated to the promotion of animal welfare in the identified legislation. This does not appear to be a government priority. However, the Giza Zoo project with international NGO Wild Welfare that involves the Egyptian Department of Zoos and Wildlife Services indicates that there is a potential opportunity for progress.[1]

 

[1] http://www.egyptindependent.com//news/zoo-problems-campaign-calls-shutdo...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

E

Protecting companion animals

There is legislation with partial application

Article 357 of the Penal Code includes “tame animals” in the list of animals protected from killing or poisoning.

Article 124 of the Agricultural Code includes in its definition of animal “domestic animals and birds”, thus including these animals in provisions relating to disease control, quarantine procedures and disposal of diseased specimens.

It is not clear whether decrees have been made under Article 119 to apply the anti-cruelty provision of that Article to part or all of this category of animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The existing legislation contains no provisions on the welfare of companion animals and the protection given is imprecise and only creates punishment for causing death. The Agricultural Code regulates issues that have to do with animal health, providing powers and measures to cull animals, without strong defining guidelines or regulations. No other control methods are considered in law. As Egypt does not have strong basic animal protection legislation, it is difficult for issues such as protection of companion animals to be improved in the country.

The government via the General Organisation for Veterinary Services, a body that falls under the Ministry of Agriculture, carries out systematic poisoning and shooting of stray dogs.[1] Such methods are not in alignment with agreed international recommendations and good animal welfare practice. Nevertheless, the government has informed in consultation that they are currently working on trials to control stray populations humanely, including neutering and spaying of cats and dogs. The government also reports that new housing systems, both owned by particulars and by the government are in the rise, which is a first step to improve conditions for animals under this indicator.

 

[1] http://www.egyptindependent.com//news/government-vets-shoot-and-poison-stray-dogs-angering-animal-welfare-activists

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The country has problems with stray dog and cat population management, which affects negatively the perception of animal protection nationally and internationally.[1] In this particular regard, the existence of significant barriers to improvement is demonstrated by the failure to implement humane methods to address this issue. This does not appear to be a government priority.

 

[1]For example  http://egyptianstreets.com/2014/07/12/stop-killing-egypts-animals/ and http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2007/847/fe1.htm

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are some penalties for conducts that may aggravate or dissipate illnesses of animals, but no enforcement mechanisms on issues in relation to the promotion or implementation of animal welfare for companion animals.

E

Protecting animals used for draught and recreation

There is legislation with partial application

Article 355 and 357 of the Penal Code include criminal penalties for deliberately killing or poisoning some animals: a riding animal, a carrying beast, a towing beast, any other type of livestock, or any tame animal. These general provisions for limited offences of killing or poisoning would therefore apply to draught animals and tame animals used for recreational purposes. There are no more detailed legal or policy provisions protecting the welfare of this category of animals.

It is not clear whether decrees have been made under Article 119 of the Agriculture Code of 1966 to apply the anti-cruelty provision of that Article to part or all of this category of animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The lack of policy and legislative developments on the issue of animals used for work and entertainment beyond the limited offences of killing and poisoning, leaves a large number of animals outside the sphere of legal protection and therefore further policy development is encouraged in the country. Such legislative development is particularly required given the large numbers of working equines in the country that are essential to the livelihoods of many people.[1] . However it should be noted that a number of NGOs are active in the country with respect to the welfare of working horses, donkeys and mules. For example, the Brooke opened its first hospital dedicated to working horses and donkeys in 1934 and has programmes in 200 communities in seven regions: Cairo, Luxor, Aswan, Edfu, Alexandria, Mersa Matruh and the Nile Delta.[2]There is no legislation to protect the welfare of performing animals, for example, circus animals or animals used for other recreational purposes. Concern has been expressed about the welfare of wild animals in circuses in the country.[3]

 

[1] https://www.thebrooke.org/our-work/our-countries2/egypt

[2] https://www.thebrooke.org/our-work/our-countries2/egypt

[3] http://www.sparelives.org/index.pl/circus

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

This does not appear to be a government priority. Further barriers to progress include lack of access to affordable quality veterinary services for working horses, donkeys and mules. A lack of education and awareness and poverty of animal owners are further barriers to progress. Traditional medicine is often cheaper than modern medicine and may lead to animal suffering.[1]

 

[1] http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/animalwelfare/global%20perspect...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are penalties under the Penal Code for the limited legislative provisions that exist. The Penal Code includes fines and imprisonment, which are limited depending on the specific conduct and which punish acts that have caused death to animals.

D

Protecting animals used in scientific research

There is legislation with partial application

There is no evidence of policy or legislation relevant to the use of animals in scientific research.

It is not clear whether decrees have been made under Article 119 of the Agriculture Code of 1966 to apply the anti-cruelty provision of that Article to part or to all of this category of animals. In spite of this, the government has confirmed in consultation that a new law is currently sitting in Parliament which intends to replace research work with laboratory animals with modern methods of research. The law has been drafted by the Ministry of Scientific Research and the Veterinary college of Cairo University.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

No existing evidence of current applicable policy or legislation was found. However, information gathered in consultation is very promising and may be the starting point of legislative commitment to protect animals in this category. This could build on information received during the consultation period according to which workshops are currently designed specifically to support and discuss replacing animals with other forms of research. The government is encouraged to support and finalise the process of passing this legislation and continue supporting initiatives to replace animals in laboratory practices.    

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence of policy and legislation relevant to this indicator. However, recent evidence suggests that there are no barriers to improve animal protection relevant to this indicator. The government has informed that a new committee has been instituted in colleges, universities and research institutes, which should be consulted on a number of issues including some aspects of animal husbandry during experimentation before publication of findings. Measures in this direction seem to demonstrate that a case for animal protection of animals in this category can be considered in Egypt. 

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no evidence of current policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

D

Protecting the welfare of wild animals

There is legislation with partial application

The Agriculture Code in Article 117 establishes that it is forbidden to hunt, trap, possess, transport or sell wild animals. There are no similar provisions for parts or products of wild animals. Article 117 nevertheless, specifies that the Ministry of Agriculture will specify by secondary legislation to which animals this prohibition applies and establishes that areas for hunting (including tourist hunting) are to be defined through secondary legislation.  An almost identical provision appears in the main Environmental Law (Law 4 of 1994) in Article 28. 

There is evidence of Decrees being produced to protect certain species following mandates from one or other of these two laws. For instance, Decree 21 of 1989 protects certain reptiles and lizards from being killed or used for commercial purposes while Decree 701 of 1982 establishes a protected zone where no hunting should take place. Further regulations on hunting complement this legislation.

Further legislation dealing with the protection of animals’ environments and of ecosystems can be found in Law 102 of 1983 on Nature Protectorates.

Egypt is party to a number of international conventions concerning wildlife and nature conservation including the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and CITES.

It is not clear whether decrees have been made under Article 119 of the Agriculture Code of 1966 to apply the anti-cruelty provision of that Article to part or all of this category of animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is some level of protection over the trade of wild animals and the legislation acknowledges that capture, possession and exhibition of these animals can undermine their welfare. The legislation potentially prevents issues of wildlife trading as well as basic life and integrity and protection of animals under this indicator. It is unfortunate that it does not apply directly and in a general way to all animals in the country, but rather requires secondary legislation to be implemented, thus requiring further political action. 

The country’s most recent report to the Convention on Biological Diversity was submitted in 1998 and contained details of a wide range of activity concerning conservation of endangered species and protection of habitat.

Cairo is an acknowledged major wildlife trafficking centre owing to its geographic location between Africa and Europe.[1] The government has informed during consultation that in light of the above, they have provided support to a UNEP campaign which raises awareness on the effect of smuggling animals across borders in four major international airports, including Cairo airport.

 

[1] http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/egypt-remains-hot-spot-illegal-chim...

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is evidence of human resource allocated to the implementation of this law, in the form of the Ministry of Agriculture. However there is no evidence of financial resource allocated to the promotion of animal welfare based on these legislative provisions. There are numerous reports indicating that tourist hunting and wildlife trafficking are undermining wildlife populations[1] [2], which might indicate some cultural disengagement with protecting the welfare of animals in this category. This presents a barrier to improve the welfare of wild animals in the country.

 

[1]http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/userfiles/file/sustainable_hunting/PDFs...

[2] http://focusingonwildlife.com/news/illegal-ivory-trade-blooms-during-egy...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Both laws referred to contain fine and imprisonment mechanisms for enforcement. However there is no evidence of complementary guidelines, recommendations or policy literature on the importance of welfare protection for animals covered by this indicator. 

Governance structures and systems

Governance structures and systems

This theme examines government commitment to improving animal protection. This includes whether there is allocation of responsibility, accountability and resources within government.

D

Government accountability for animal welfare

There is legislation with partial application

The Ministry of Agriculture in Egypt has some responsibility for developing secondary legislation for the implementation of some of the legislation, as described in previous indicators. These mandates are mostly in connection with animal health protection and no evidence of specific regulations on animal welfare responsibilities was found. In addition, the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency has the specific responsibility of preparing draft legislation for environmental management, including issues affecting animals and biodiversity.

The General Authority for Veterinary Services, a body associated with the Ministry of Agriculture has the mission to “protect livestock and their products through the protection of this national wealth of communicable and infectious diseases,” according to its website.[1]

 

[1] http://thecairopost.com/news/102910/inside_egypt/mission-to-protect-anim...

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The existing legislation does provide a framework on which to build processes for assigning responsibility and accountability for improving animal protection in the country. However, there is no evidence of direct responsibility for animal welfare promotion within a government body in the country and there is no evidence of financial resource allocated to animal welfare development and policy relating to the relevant legislation.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

It may be that the recent inclusion of a reference to humane treatment of animals in the country’s new constitution represents an opportunity for progress to be made. However, a number of barriers to progress exist with respect to a lack of awareness of the importance of animal welfare amongst the population and existing socio-cultural attitudes and practices.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no evidence of enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

Animal welfare standards

Animal welfare standards

This theme examines whether the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)’s animal welfare standards have been incorporated into law or policy, the extent of engagement with the OIE on animal welfare issues, and whether the government publishes reports on progress in improving animal welfare.

D

Engagement with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

There is policy

The government does have some level of engagement with OIE initiatives. A PVS evaluation mission took place in the country and there are a number of reports of interaction with the organisation, particularly on issues of reporting on animal health. The country has also recently hosted veterinary legislation conferences, aiding the development of veterinary regulations nationally and regionally.

Following international outcry concerning Egypt’s pig cull discussions took place between the OIE, the Egyptian government and World Animal Protection (formerly the World Society for the Protection of Animals) regarding development of a training programme for humane slaughter in disease control.[1]

 

[1] http://rushprnews.com/2009/07/17/egyptian-pig-cull-public-pressure-opens...

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is evidence of the government’s interest in interacting with the OIE in particular on issues affecting animal health. The lack of legislative and policy production on the welfare standards, however, limits the possibilities for development of a framework in which animal welfare considerations are brought to decision-making tables. 

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

No evidence was found according to which the government has allocated budget or a department to interact with OIE on issues regarding animal welfare improvement. This does not appear to be a government priority. However, interaction has taken place following expression of international concerns of cruelty to animals and this suggests that there may be scope for engagement on animal welfare issues.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

G

OIE animal welfare standards

There is no policy or legislation

All of the OIE’s standards have yet to be transposed into legislation and policy in the country.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The OIE’s standards on animal welfare not only represent a consensual position achieved by countries represented in the organisation with regard to this subject matter, but also provide the necessary scientific background to produce sound policy and legislation on animal welfare.

Egypt is a member of the OIE and as such has given its support to the OIE’s animal welfare standards and guiding principles for animal welfare. The government is encouraged to incorporate the OIE’s standards and principles within it legislation.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The desire to access more trade markets could provide some motivation for the country to develop legislation and policy so as to comply with good international animal welfare standards in particular with respect to farm animal welfare. However the experience of the ban on live export of sheep from Australia to Egypt suggests that even with trade pressures there remain significant barriers to improvement.[1]

 

[1] http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/australia-to-restart-li...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

G

Reporting on progress

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence of policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no evidence of policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The main barrier to improvement in this area is the fact that the country does not have any policy or legislation creating a mandate to capture, analyse and report on data relevant to animal welfare. This does not appear to be a government priority. However, ii may be that the recent inclusion of a reference to humane treatment of animals in the country’s new constitution represents an opportunity for progress to be made.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Providing humane education

Providing humane education

This theme examines whether issues of animal care and protection are included in the national education system at primary and secondary level, and comments on whether animal welfare issues such as humane handling form part of veterinary medicine education.

E

Education on animal care and protection

There is policy

The government has informed of a number of initiatives that inform a governmental policy of introducing animal welfare education at university level. Courses on ethics and animal welfare supported by principles of Muslim religion are endorsed by the government in El Azhar University and the veterinary colleges of Cairo University South Valley University. In addition, there are plans to promote curriculum changes for children that acknowledge animal welfare as well, but concrete examples are yet to be developed.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is evidence to suggest that Egypt’s education system is taking small steps includes any reference to animal welfare or the protection of animals in veterinary education. In addition to this, there are a number of animal welfare organisations promoting education and awareness on animal welfare issues, [1] [2] but no evidence of government sanctioned literature or support for these organisations was found.

 

[1] For example http://sparelives.org/index.pl/education

[2] http://icfaw.org/Documents/Supporting%20the%20implementation.pdf

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Socio-cultural attitudes to animals in the country may present barriers to progress with respect to inclusion of animal care and protection within the education system. Animal welfare is apparently not regarded as an issue of importance by the public,[1] which explains why this is not a government priority.

 

[1] http://thecairopost.com/news/102910/inside_egypt/mission-to-protect-anim...

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Promoting communication and awareness

Promoting communication and awareness

This theme examines whether there is government consultation and engagement with relevant stakeholders on animal protection issues, such as the development of new legislation and policy and the licensing of scientific research using animals.

C

Consultation with stakeholders

There is legislation

The Ministerial decree 804 produced in 2011 has a mandate according to which the government should work in collaboration with NGOs on supervision of wildlife. In addition, this same legislation establishes a national veterinary council in Article 2 which includes participation of civil community including those who work in animal welfare referred to as animal welfare and wildlife NGOs. Furthermore, the government has confirmed that there is evidence of formal engagement with international NGOs on animal protection. The government has confirmed having worked with The Brooke charity hospital for drought animals, Donkey Sanctuary, The Egyptian Society of Animal Friends and World Animal Protection (as WSPA), with commitment to work further with these stakeholders for the drafting of further legislation on animal protection.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

Official information in relation to this indicator is very scarce. There are some charitable organisations dedicated to animal welfare, animal protection and animal sheltering, but there are no reports of cooperating dialogue between said organisations and the government. However, the fact that there is legislation with a specific mandate can be used as the cornerstone to improve positive collaboration initiatives with the government in the future, including the production of further legislation to protect animals.   

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The country does not have a structure of organisations that could support the government in the production of policy and legislation on animal protection and animal welfare. However, discussions have taken place with the government concerning some individual projects, for example, humane slaughter training with the OIE and World Animal Protection, and the Giza Zoo project with international NGO Wild Welfare, indicating that there may be potential for further co-operation between the government and relevant stakeholders, including NGOs.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator. 

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Due to the tumultuous period Egypt has been experiencing, “the economy remains affected by weak consumer and business confidence”. The EIU forecasts growth to come in at 2% for 2014. The main driver of growth in 2014 will be “high public spending levels” impacting “consumption and investment”. Longer term, the EIU forecast real GDP growth to average 4.8% for the period 2013-30.

 

Date of information: 11/02/2014
Population 
80,721,874
GDP 
$257,285,845,358
GDP (PPP) 
$6,723
Education expenditure (% of GDP) 
3.8 (2008)