Colombia

D
Colombia
Recognising animal protection

Recognising animal protection

This theme examines recognition of animal sentience and the importance of animal protection as a societal value within the country, including government support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare, prohibition of cruelty and protection for different categories of animals.

D

Formal recognition of animal sentience

There is legislation with partial application

Law 84 of 1989, the National Statute of Animal Protection (NSAP), acknowledges that animals can feel pain and establishes in Article 2 that the objective of the law is to prevent “pain and suffering” of animals.  These provisions apply to wild, feral, tamed and domestic animals (regardless of the condition in which they are kept).  However, there is no recognition of positive aspects of animal sentience such as the ability to experience positive emotions.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The acknowledgement of animals’ capacity to feel pain is an important element of sentience and it is very important that the existing legislation not only acknowledges this element but also aims to prevent (not just punish) conducts by which this could be undermined. The government is encouraged to recognise positive as well as negative aspects of animal sentience in legislation and policy.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no allocation of a responsible authority for the development of further policy or secondary legislation in the country and no evidence of allocation of financial resource to enact the provisions on sentience or develop the other elements of sentience. However, given that both the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Environment have given their support in principle to the UDAW, it may be that progress is possible.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

The legislation has an enforcement mechanism that is similar to criminal procedures. However, constitutional changes in the country have rendered this process currently invalid. Law 84 of 1989 has two chapters on procedures for enforcement. The relevant authority is not a criminal judge, but rather police inspectors and majors in other municipalities. As the country’s judicial system was reformed under constitutional reform in 1991, there is no clarity on the current authorities capable of prosecuting under this law. As such, there is no operational enforcement mechanism as the changes introduced by the subsequent Constitution in 1991 did not result in changes to the law.

D

Support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare

There is partial government support

The government has not pledged full in principle support for the Universal Declaration for Animal Welfare, but there are statements of support from both the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of the Environment.

Note: The Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare is a proposed formal international acknowledgment of a set of principles giving animal welfare due recognition among governments and the international community. An expression of support for the UDAW demonstrates a government’s commitment to working with the international community to improve animal welfare.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The Ministries of Agriculture and of the Environment have expressed support for the UDAW, taking an important step towards introducing animal welfare as a topic of discussion in Colombia. The government is encouraged to commit full support in principle for the UDAW and to use the principles contained in the UDAW to update the existing legislation on animal protection.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence of existing provisions in policy and legislation by which a dedicated authority can be inferred, nor is any financial resource understood to be specifically allocated for the promotion and inclusion of UDAW and its principles into the Colombian animal protection system.  However, both the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of the Environment have given their support in principle to the UDAW, and it therefore appears that there is potential for progress to be made.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

B

Laws against causing animal suffering

There is legislation

There are two main laws that address basic animal protection; Law 5 of 1972 (and complementary regulation Decree 497 of 1973) and Law 84 of 1989, known as the National Statute of Animal Protection.

Law 5 of 1972 establishes the structure for Animal Protection Boards and gives a mandate for one of these entities to be formed in each municipality. Secondary regulation Decree 497 of 1973 provides further detail relating to the establishment of the Animal Protection Boards and specifies a series of conducts that are considered forms of mistreatment to animals (Article 3). The prohibition of these conducts provide the most basic forms of protection, such as deliberately hitting or killing animals, and also some rules about issues such as keeping too many animals together, terrorising them and abandoning them.

Law 84 of 1989 established a comprehensive catalogue of conducts in Article 6 that refer to deliberate acts of cruelty and negligence or failure to act that could cause suffering. Similarly to the conducts described in Decree 497 of 1973, there are conducts describing actions carried out directly to animals (such as removing feathers from a live animal) and others that relate to the conditions or environment in which an animal is kept (such as depriving a captive animal of light or space).  In addition, Chapter II (Articles 4 and 5) entitled “Duties towards animals” has a clearly established duty of care addressing in particular animals kept in captivity and domestic animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The existing legislation covers a variety of conducts relevant to  the needs of animals in line with international standards such as the Five Freedoms, the establishment of a duty of care that covers acts of negligence, for example, requiring provision of assistance to an animal that could be potentially harmed.

Evidence of the government’s intentions to promote animal welfare issues can be found in Article 3 of Law 5 of 1972, which provides that Animal Protection Boards have the responsibility of promoting cultural and educational campaigns “in order to awaken a spirit of love towards animals that are useful to mankind, avoid cruelty acts, abuse or abandonment.” This law was the first of its kind in the country and made great advances in producing a catalogue of prohibited conducts that was easy to understand, so that the newly created animal protection bodies would have clarity on their objectives and on the expectations of citizens in the country.

Law 84 of 1989 acknowledged that Law 5 of 1972 did not prove entirely effective and therefore introduced a different system and a wider catalogue of punishable conducts to protect animal welfare. This is more detailed and addresses a wider array of issues. In addition, and following international standards, the law established a duty of care towards animals thus enhancing forms of protection derived from protection against negligence.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Law 84 of 1989 did not create a particular framework by which allocation of responsibilities and financial resources could implement this legislation. However the framework set out in Law 5 of 1972 provides evidence at least of human resource. Financial resource is referenced in the law in the form of a committee in charge of the administration of sums raised through fines and also of donations and subsidies received. However, the law provides for the existence of an Animal Protection Board for each municipality, which would total more than one thousand boards, and it therefore appears that this may not be practicable and not capable of full application.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Law 5 of 1972 and Decree 497 of 1973 were established almost as a policy statement insofar as they contain no indication of enforcement mechanisms. The Animal Protection Boards’ mandate is merely educational. Article 3 of Decree 497 of 1973 establishes that these organisations “will have an educational character that will endeavour, through their members’ work, to create feelings of protection towards animals in general and avoid mistreatment that they could be subjected to.” Article 10 does state that transgression of the conducts described in the Decree will be sanctioned by fine, but there is no procedure for this fine to be imposed. This mechanism is imprecise.

Law 84 of 1989 has two chapters on procedures for enforcement. While this law does not make reference to criminal procedures (other than some specific exceptions), it presents a very similar structure to those. The relevant authority is not a criminal judge, but rather police inspectors and majors in other municipalities. As the country’s judicial system was reformed under constitutional reform in 1991, there is no clarity on the current authorities capable of prosecuting under this law. As such, there is no operational enforcement mechanism in Law 84 of 1989 as the changes introduced by the subsequent Constitution in 1991 did not result in changes to the law.

C

Protecting animals used in farming

There is legislation

Article 3 of Law 5 of 1972 and Decree 497 of 1973 describe a list of conducts that are deemed abusive towards animals. A number of such provisions are particularly relevant to animals used in farming. These include allowing animals to access food and water as well as provisions on rearing (avoiding overcrowding and mixing with other species), conditions of transport and basic conditions of slaughter. Article 8 includes a specific mandate for slaughter to be carried out only in accordance with health and safety regulations. There are several such relevant regulations, particularly government decrees relating to rearing and slaughtering of animals.

Law 84 of 1989 reaffirms some of these provisions. In addition, Chapter VII establishes some provisions for the transport of animals. These provisions are not specifically limited to farmed animals, but references to access to water, protection from sun and rain and other mechanisms that are relevant to this category of animals are established in the law.   

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The existing legislation covers animals used in farming and establishes animal welfare as an independent issue worth of consideration. There are a number of regulations that apply that   take into consideration international standards and guiding principles on welfare.  

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence of a single or unified body that can develop specific policies for the protection of farmed animals in the country. In addition, there are a number of provisions that seem to regulate the same issues, which suggests that legislation seems not to be enforced at present. This does not appear to be a government priority.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

The relevant provisions appear to have several different mechanisms available for enforcement. In some cases there are specific mechanisms for enforcement of provisions, as in Chapter VII of Law 84 of 1989 where special fines are in place for transgressions of the animal transport provisions.

There is no evidence of additional policy or legislation by which the government provides guidelines, recommendations and other mechanisms of awareness and education on issues relating to the welfare of farmed animals. 

D

Protecting animals in captivity

There is legislation with partial application

There are regulations in Law 5 of 1972 and Decree 497 of 1973 that are quite general and specify that animals should not be kept captive in certain conditions such as without access to food and water or ventilation. Law 84 of 1989 does not include specific regulations on the conditions of captivity, but the definition of “animal” presented in Article 1 includes captive animals, therefore the general anti-cruelty provisions are applicable to this category of animals. In addition, there are some administrative provisions relating to the display of zoological collections in zoos, which are contained within general regulations for parks and other entertainment venues (Law 1225 of 2008).

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The legislation recognises the fact that captivity can create certain welfare problems and as such establishes provisions to prevent animals being kept in conditions that can deteriorate or undermine their welfare. The relevant provisions are simple, yet cover basic standards and principles on captive animal welfare. The government is encouraged to develop detailed legislation or guidance addressing the species-specific welfare needs of different animals kept in captivity.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

In a similar way to other indicators, there is no evidence of a single or unified body that can develop specific policies for the protection of captive animals in the country. There is no evidence of human and financial resource dedicated to the development of policy and legislation for the protection of these animals in the country; this does not appear to be a government priority at present, but the scope of existing legislation provides hope that some improvement could be possible.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

The general enforcement mechanisms that exist in Law 5 of 1972, Decree 497 of 1973 and Law 84 of 1989 are applicable to this indicator.  However, as expressed before, these mechanisms are imprecise and do not provide a good framework for the implementation of protection measures in the existing legislation.

D

Protecting companion animals

There is legislation with partial application

The general provisions of Law 5 of 1972, Decree 497 of 1973 and Law 84 of 1989 are applicable to this indicator. In addition, Law 746 of 2002 inserts some provisions into the Colombian Police Code on responsible ownership of dogs, including ownership and care of dangerous dogs and specific bans on dog fighting.

There does not appear to be legislation on stray population control.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

As in other countries, particularly in the region, the animal protection legislation is far more detailed on the subject of companion animals, in particular dogs. The more recent legislation includes elements of responsible care and ownership of dogs and regulates some aspects of social interaction of these animals in both public and private space. The government is encouraged to expand on the legislation to include other companion animals not currently protected by specific legislation, and to develop legislation on humane stray population control.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Law 746 of 2002 introduced provisions that go beyond the scope of the main animal protection legislation in Colombia and included these provisions under the National Police Code. As such, the legislator automatically provided human and financial resource to the implementation of the legislation. However there is no indication that there is a body or organ within the government in charge of developing policy or further legislation for the protection of companion animals in the country. Neither is there evidence of such an organ in the general provisions of animal protection that appear in Law 84 of 1989.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

In addition to the enforcement mechanisms for the general provisions, Law 746 of 2002 contains specific police powers including imposition of fines and seizure of animals. In addition, there are criminal procedures and administrative sanctions to be applied jointly with provisions of Law 84 of 1989. However, these provisions are currently outside valid procedure in the country.

C

Protecting animals used for draught and recreation

There is legislation

General provisions of Law 5 of 1972, Decree 497 of 1973 and Law 84 of 1989 are applicable to this category of animals.  Particularly relevant conducts included in Article 6 of Law 84 include not using animals in movies or television to depict cruel acts, not using animals for public events relating to harming those animals and a general ban on animal fighting.

The conditions of working animals, in particular horses pulling carts in urban areas of the country, have been a recurrent problem that has been addressed by different norms since 1972 and more recently by Law 769 of 2002. Although the government has prorogued the deadline for working horses to be out of urban centres twice (thus acknowledging that implementation of the original provisions has not been achieved), there are only a few cities complying with this mandate.  

Recently, the government approved Law 1638 of 2013 in which the use of wild animals in circuses is banned.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The fact that the legislation has prorogued deadlines for the legislation to be implemented presents strong evidence of the difficulty of implementing legislation protecting these animals in the country. The government is encouraged to continue with efforts to implement legislation to protect working horses and to produce legislation covering other animals used for draught and recreation purposes.

Recent Law 1638 of 2013 bans the use of wild animals in circuses. This legislation acknowledges that the training, performance, confinement and transport of animals in circuses affect their welfare.

Law 84 of 1989 includes specific provisions by which animals should not be overloaded and in general prohibits animals not fit for purpose (such as blind or wounded animals) being used for work. The government is encouraged to promote this mandate and to create viable mechanisms for implementation of existing legislation. 

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is evidence that recent legislation to protect some of the animals that fall within this category has included giving specific responsibilities to authorities for its implementation, and that budget has been allocated to accomplish the mandate established by law. In the case of working horses, there are some cities in the country that have accomplished this role. Likewise, there are no perceivable barriers for the implementation of the ban on wild animals in circuses.

The protection of other animals and other situations within this category, as formulated in Law 84 of 1989, needs the allocation of specific responsible authorities, a goal that could be achieved by producing further policy and legislation on the subject matter. In addition, there is a cultural issue acknowledged in Article 7 of Law 84, which indicates that certain entertainment activities involving the use of animals are allowed, including bullfighting, cockfighting and other activities that harm livestock. This cultural barrier prevents animal protection measures being applied to certain species in certain situations. 

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

The enforcement mechanisms of Law 84 of 1989. However, these provisions are currently outside valid procedure in the country. Nevertheless, as new legislation relevant to this category of animals has surfaced, new mechanisms for enforcement, authorities and budget to implement have emerged as well. The government has evident difficulty implementing legislation in relation to this category of animals (as acknowledged by the legislative production itself), but policy and legislative work has yielded some results. The government is encouraged to continue working on this and to produce further enforcement mechanisms that allow the application of existing provisions protecting further animals in this category. 

C

Protecting animals used in scientific research

There is legislation

The main catalogue of prohibited cruelty conducts which is set out in Article 6 of Law 84 of 1989, includes provisions relevant to this category of animals such as not harming animals with needles or blades and not providing drugs or medicines where not needed or without a therapeutic or scientific reason. Law 84 of 1989 also contains specific mandates on the use of animals in education and scientific research: Articles 23 to 26 include provisions to limit or ban certain practices (such as vivisection for educational purposes) and establishes the creation of a committee to overview experiments or practices with animals in the country. 

More recent legislation regulating the veterinary profession (Law 576 of 2000) and the bioethics code (Law 841 of 2003) also include mandates for the protection of animals in scientific research.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The existing legislation recognises the issue of animal experimentation as a factor capable of undermining the welfare of animals that are used in education and scientific research. The government has banned the use of animals in experiments for commercial purposes, and the legislation has included several restrictions and conditions under which experimentation takes place. International guiding principles and standards have been introduced, including principles of the Three Rs. The legislation establishes a good framework for welfare protection for animals in this category.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The existing legislation contains provisions for the creation of ethical committees that are in charge of reviewing the pertinence and compliance with legal obligations relating to animal experimentation in the country. Nevertheless, there is no evidence of financial resource allocated to the committees created by law.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

While mechanisms in Law 84 of 1989 have constitutional restrictions preventing them from being applied properly in the country, the mechanisms created by more recent legislation are useful with regard to this indicator. The mechanisms are mostly administrative measures with regard to the conduct of some health professionals, which while apparently restrictive, in fact do cover situations in which animals may be used for research. However there is no evidence of accompanying policies or literature providing further guidance on the protection of the welfare of animals in this category.

C

Protecting the welfare of wild animals

There is legislation

Law 84 of 1989 includes wild animals in the definition of “animal” and therefore all conducts described in this law are applicable to this category of animals (regardless of whether they are captive or not). Further than that, there is a series of Decrees made by government that form the National Code of Natural Resources, also referenced in Law 84 of 1989, which includes legislation to protect wild animals from a conservation perspective.

Law 84 of 1989 contains a general ban on hunting, with the exceptions of self-subsistence hunting and capture of animals for research, and includes a number of conditions for fishing (mostly in relation to commercial or industrial fishing).  This law also makes illegal traffic in wild animals a punishable conduct, including a ban on the commercialisation of animal parts and skins.

In relation to the latter, the Criminal Code (Law 599 of 2000) includes a similar offence and establishes that using, transporting and commercialisation of wild animals is a criminal offence. Law 1333 of 2009 introduces sanctions for environmental offences, which includes punishment for illegal animal trafficking.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The legislation considers the welfare of wild animals from an individual perspective and also as part of the collective protection of wildlife. In addition, there is attention to illegal traffic in wild animals and by-products of those animals, which creates a framework by which animal welfare considerations are highlighted and should offer some protection from the main threats to wildlife.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence of financial resource allocated to the implementation of legislation, in particular of Law 84 of 1989. By remission of environmental laws and in particular the National Code of Natural Resources, the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development does have some particular policing tasks and powers to improve animal welfare for this category.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

With regard to illegal trafficking and environmental offences that have direct negative consequences on the welfare of this category of animals, there are mechanisms that appear on relevant law, notably with criminal procedures for these criminal offences. In addition to this, the publication of Law 1333 of 2009 established clear provisions by which the mechanisms are not only explained but also, the correct procedure for their implementation is established. However, as mentioned before, one of the main problems relating to Law 84 of 1989 is the lack of clarity and constitutional difficulties over enforcing the provisions. The government is encouraged to update the legislation or produce regulations similar to Law 1333 of 2009 in order to create an adequate framework for animal protection.

Governance structures and systems

Governance structures and systems

This theme examines government commitment to improving animal protection. This includes whether there is allocation of responsibility, accountability and resources within government.

E

Government accountability for animal welfare

There is legislation with partial application

The animal protection system in the country originally referred to mechanisms of prosecution very similar to those in criminal law, which meant that there was not a central authority responsible for animal welfare in the country. With the production of further specialised legislation in some areas, the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development has been established more formally as an authority for the development of policies with regard to animal protection, but this responsibility is within the framework of biodiversity and conservation. In addition to this, some other responsibilities have been undertaken by the Colombian Institute of Agriculture, which is part of the Ministry of Agriculture and promotes OIE work in the country, particularly in relation to animals used for farming. There is no evidence of an existing central authority in charge of developing overall policy for animal protection in the country.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The animal protection system in Colombia is based on different regulations with different systems, which means that a number of different authorities may be able to intervene to regulate issues with regard to animal welfare and animal protection. However a responsible central authority has not been established and some issues that could have an impact on animal welfare are not covered by any authority. Although the existing legislation has recognised animal welfare as an independent issue this has not translated into a legal development that gives single responsibility to any organ or department officially part of the government.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence of allocation of specific human or financial resource to develop policy on animal welfare or enact existing legislation in the country. This does not appear to be a government priority.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

Animal welfare standards

Animal welfare standards

This theme examines whether the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)’s animal welfare standards have been incorporated into law or policy, the extent of engagement with the OIE on animal welfare issues, and whether the government publishes reports on progress in improving animal welfare.

D

Engagement with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

There is policy

The government has participated in the OIE’s veterinary missions and currently appears as one of the participants in the development of regional work in the collaborating centre in Uruguay. The Colombian Institute of Agriculture promotes the OIE’s standards and currently holds representation before the organisation for regional issues. The country reports to OIE on animal health issues and has been successful in controlling and eradicating certain animal diseases.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

While the country is active within the OIE framework, there is no evidence found indicating that this interaction goes beyond the scope of animals used in farming, and within this sector it is mostly focused on health issues. The government is encouraged to engage with the OIE with respect to animal welfare as well as addressing animal health issues.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence of financial resource specifically allocated to work with the OIE. While there is human resource in the form of representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture, there is no evidence of existing links for the improvement of animal welfare with other authorities, such as the Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

B

OIE animal welfare standards

There is legislation

Where legislation exists to address a particular issue, it does cover most of the OIE’s guiding principles and standards on animal welfare (albeit without specific reference to the OIE). All topics covered by the OIE’s standards on animal welfare have been addressed in Colombian legislation and more recent developments are based largely on the guiding principles of animal welfare.  

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no specific reference to the OIE’s standards, but issues covered by existing legislation are in accordance with the standards and with the guiding principles of the OIE. As such, the issue of animal welfare is part of political decisions, including on policies of environment and health.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

While the guiding principles appear in legislation, there is no evidence of financial resource or human resource allocated to develop or enact most of these. There appear to be resource barriers to further improvement.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

For most of the issues covered by the OIE’s standards, the legislation has enforcement mechanisms albeit with some issues of applicability (such as constitutional obstacles). The government is encouraged to develop further mechanisms for enforcement of the existing legislation. 

G

Reporting on progress

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence in policy or legislation that there is any government system to capture, analyse and publish information on animal welfare progress.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The government has not developed mechanisms of data analysis or information in relation to animal welfare. This makes it more difficult to enact and implement policy and legislation because it is difficult to measure the way in which existing norms have an impact on the welfare of animals throughout Colombia. The government is encouraged to develop a clear strategy on animal welfare and to commence regular reporting against goals identified in that strategy.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no human or financial resource dedicated to reporting. No structures for data collection, analysis and publication have been found that creates a management system for the country to produce a good legislative framework of animal protection. There appear to be resource barriers to improvement here.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

Providing humane education

Providing humane education

This theme examines whether issues of animal care and protection are included in the national education system at primary and secondary level, and comments on whether animal welfare issues such as humane handling form part of veterinary medicine education.

D

Education on animal care and protection

There is legislation with partial application

Law 84 of 1989 establishes in Article 2(D) that one of the objectives of the law is the development of education programmes that “promote respect and care for animals”, although no detail is given as to the scope of such programmes. More recent legislation on professionals dealing with animals, particularly veterinarians and bacteriologists (Laws 576 of 2000 and 841 of 2003) include mandates according to which animal welfare considerations must be included in the education programmes for these professions. Furthermore, the national education system includes biodiversity and environmental care as one of its objectives (Ministry of Education).

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The government appears to have introduced legislation according to which educational programmes for different levels (basic to secondary) include animal welfare as an issue. This contributes positively to discussions on animal welfare at high government levels. In addition, the mandate of Law 84 appears to be in conjunction with media and in both private and public schools.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There do not appear to be significant barriers for education on animal welfare to be included in the country.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no evidence of enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator. 

Promoting communication and awareness

Promoting communication and awareness

This theme examines whether there is government consultation and engagement with relevant stakeholders on animal protection issues, such as the development of new legislation and policy and the licensing of scientific research using animals.

D

Consultation with stakeholders

There is legislation with partial application

Law 5 of 1972 and Law 84 of 1989 refer to committees in which animal protection organisations can interact with government bodies. Likewise, for some of the categories assessed in this report, there is specific legislation that has created similar committees to produce decisions and supervise issues such as the practice of animal experiments in the country.  Such structures are unfortunately not universal and there is no clarity in legislation on which committee is currently valid.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The committees created by existing legislation allow engagement of relevant stakeholders, including NGOs and other interested parties, on issues relating to animal welfare. However there is no clarity in legislation on the hierarchy and functioning of such committees (particularly as structures created by legislation in 1972 and 1989 are legally valid and theoretically could co-exist), nor was evidence found of their outputs in our research. The government is encouraged to update and unify this system to allow the objective of stakeholder engagement to be achieved.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

While the legislation has human resource dedicated to animal welfare, it is unclear whether these committees exist (no evidence was found) and there is no evidence in legislation that there is financial resource dedicated to their operation.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

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Robust growth is expected in 2014 after a dip in 2013. Investment and consumption are holding steady with export of oil and agricultural products expected to grow. Public debt is also expected to fall to 29.9% of GDP by 2018. Private consumption is expected the main driver of growth foing forward. In the longer term, Colombia’s natural resource wealth will attract investment and stimulate growth, however, “deficient infrastructure, the corrosive effect of drug-trafficking on institutions, corruption and relatively high crime rates and the lobbying power of vested interest groups”, will have an impact on GDP growth. The EIU forecasts real GDP growth to average out at 3.5% for the period 2012-30.

 

 

 

Date of information: 11/02/2014
Population 
47,704,427
GDP 
$369,789,365,899
GDP (PPP) 
$10,587
Education expenditure (% of GDP) 
4.5 (2011)