Algeria

F
Algeria
Recognising animal protection

Recognising animal protection

This theme examines recognition of animal sentience and the importance of animal protection as a societal value within the country, including government support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare, prohibition of cruelty and protection for different categories of animals.

G

Formal recognition of animal sentience

There is no policy or legislation

There is no policy or legislation recognising animal sentience.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

As it stands today, there is no formal evidence or signal from the government to recognise sentience as an independent issue that will inform discussions of animal issues in the country. As such, sentience is not included and does not inform public policies that could be potentially linked to animals (such as environmental or sustainable production policies).

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has not yet incorporated current practical experience and scientific knowledge regarding animal sentience into the country’s legislation. It is concerning that the government does not appear to consider animal welfare to be an important issue for regulation, despite the country’s membership of the OIE.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

G

Support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare

There is no policy or legislation

The government has not pledged in principle support for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare.

Note: The Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare is a proposed formal international acknowledgment of a set of principles giving animal welfare due recognition among governments and the international community. An expression of support for the UDAW demonstrates a government’s commitment to working with the international community to improve animal welfare.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

At present there is no support for the UDAW. Support for the UDAW would be a first step towards integrating animal protection considerations into different discussion forums, becoming a soft law source for decision makers interested in improving animal protection in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has not demonstrated interest in improving animal protection in the country. There appear to be barriers to improvement.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

D

Laws against causing animal suffering

There is legislation with partial application

Law 88-08 of 1988 on veterinary activities and the protection of animal health includes a chapter on animal protection and the control of animal health and animal products (Title IV). Article 58 establishes a prohibition against those who practice “bad treatments” towards domestic and tamed or captive wild animals. The article provides for secondary regulations to be produced, which will also include measures against the abusive use of animals in various circumstances, however no evidence was found of any secondary legislation in relation to this article.

Article 60 establishes that people keeping animals (owners and keepers in general) should keep them in a good state of health and establishes a series of obligations with regard to health authorities.

In addition, the Penal Code contains three articles which cover some specific punishable conducts such as poisoning animals (Article 415), causing death and injuries, overloading working animals, working with ill animals and accidents caused by use of weapons and poor keeping conditions (Article 457), and mistreatment of domestic and tamed or captive wild animals (Article 449).  The wording of Article 449 of the Penal Code is very similar to that of Law 88-08. For Article 415, there is a narrow list of species covered, which include mostly domestic and working animals along with fish. 

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The relevant provisions of the Penal Code are quite specific and limited to circumstances by which the animal’s integrity is severely compromised or the animal is actually destroyed. As such, it is very difficult to promote welfare in the country as no particular attention is given to a wide range of conducts, negligent acts and other attitudes and behaviours that could compromise animal welfare without causing death or injury.

The existing specialised legislation (Law 88-08 of 1988) is framed within provisions on the veterinary profession and, in general, on the health of animals. While health is an important component of welfare, there are a number of aspects that are not covered by said legislation and as such, the issue does not appear to have significant independence in legislation that would allow the concept of animal welfare to become a mainstream concern of society. The general mandate is reduced to avoid mistreatment of animals, but no indication is given of the extent and scope of this circumstance or an indication of what constitutes mistreatment, making the measure difficult to apply.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no indication of human or financial resource dedicated to animal welfare. Provisions in Law 88-08 are detailed in relation to veterinary services and in relation to control of diseases and spreading of diseases. Whilst some of these provisions are helpful with respect to animal welfare, they are not sufficient to improve animal welfare in the country. The lack of recognition of the importance of animal welfare as an issue separate to those of animal health and disease control is a considerable barrier to progress.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Article 58 of Law 88-08 establishes that infractions to the article will be punished in accordance to the three articles of the Penal Code mentioned above. The conducts described in Articles 415, 449 and 457 have different degrees of punishment (fines and/or imprisonment) in the Algerian system, with poisoning (Article 415) as the most severe.

D

Protecting animals used in farming

There is legislation with partial application

The basic provisions for the protection of animals appearing in Law 88-08 and in the Penal Code are applicable to animals used in farming. 

Article 58 of Law 88-08 provides that regulations will be made to protect animals from suffering in various methods of rearing, housing, transport and slaughter. The subsequent executive decree 04-82 governs conditions for establishments associated with animals and animal products, and for the transport of animals. Article 6 provides that establishments for rearing animals must be constructed so as to ensure the well-being of the animals. However, this is referenced to sanitary measures such as housing being easy to clean. Article 15 provides that transport methods must be designed to preserve the life and well-being of animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The existing legislation has a number of provisions that relate to the health of farming animals. However, these are limited and lacking in detail and do not consider the overall welfare of the animals concerned.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The fact that an executive decree has been issued covering some aspects of farm animal welfare indicates that the government is prepared to take action in this area. This suggests that some improvement may be possible.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Infringement of the provisions set out in executive decree 04-82 is, through the primary legislation Article 58 of Law 88-08, punishable under Articles 415, 449 and 457 of the Penal Code with fines and/or imprisonment. 

E

Protecting animals in captivity

There is legislation with partial application

Provisions for the protection of animals appearing in Law 88-08 and in the Penal Code are applicable to animals in captivity. Article 58 of Law 88-08 and Article 449 of the Penal Code make reference to “domestic, tamed and wild animals in captivity.”

Beyond these basic provisions, there is no evidence of legislation or policy dealing specifically with the welfare of animals in captivity.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no evidence of legislation or policy acknowledging specific problems arising from holding animals in captivity. Both sets of provisions in Law 88-08 and the Penal Code are vague as most conducts are undefined. There is no correlation between the existing punishable conducts and problems associated with captivity of animals. 

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no indication or evidence of existing financial or human resource allocated to develop policy and legislation relevant to this indicator. The lack of recognition of the importance of animal welfare as an issue separate to those of animal health and disease control is a considerable barrier to progress. The government is encouraged to develop independent legislation addressing other aspects of animal welfare.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Infringement of the relevant provisions in Law 88-08 and in the Penal Code is punishable by fines and/or imprisonment under Articles 415, 449 and 457 of the Penal Code.

E

Protecting companion animals

There is legislation with partial application

Provisions for the protection of animals appearing in Law 88-08 and in the Penal Code are applicable to companion animals. Article 58 of Law 88-08 and Article 449 of the Penal Code make reference to domestic animals.

Legislation on rabies control permits government culling of feral dogs and wild animals within areas where there are rabies cases, with no welfare considerations. Beyond these basic provisions, there is no evidence of legislation or policy dealing specifically with the welfare of companion animals.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no evidence of legislation or policy presenting mandates or guidelines on the responsible care of domestic animals. The provisions in Law 88-08 and the Penal Code are vague as most conducts are undefined. There is no correlation between the existing punishable conducts and problems associated with the welfare of domestic animals. In addition, the legislation on rabies control does not contemplate preventive measures.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no indication or evidence of financial or human resource available to develop policy and legislation relevant to this indicator.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Infringement of the relevant provisions in Law 88-08 and in the Penal Code is punishable by fines and/or imprisonment under Articles 415, 449 and 457 of the Penal Code.

E

Protecting animals used for draught and recreation

There is legislation with partial application

Provisions for the protection of animals appearing in Law 88-08 and in the Penal Code are applicable to animals used for draught or recreational purposes. Article 58 of Law 88-08 and Article 449 of the Penal Code make reference to “domestic, tamed and wild animals in captivity.”

There is no evidence of legislation or policies specifically addressing the welfare of draught animals or animals used for recreational purposes.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There are no legislation efforts or policies that provide for the welfare of animals in this category to be discussed or developed in the country.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no indication or evidence of financial or human resource available to develop policy and legislation relevant to this indicator.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Infringement of the relevant provisions in Law 88-08 and in the Penal Code is punishable by fines and/or imprisonment under Articles 415, 449 and 457 of the Penal Code.

D

Protecting animals used in scientific research

There is legislation with partial application

Article 58 of Law 88-08 of 1988 includes a general prohibition of committing “bad treatments” towards animals. Article 58 also states that the same prohibition applies in relation to animals used in biological, medical and scientific experiments, which experiments are required to be “limited to cases of strict necessity.”

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The provision is limited in scope but does acknowledge that animal protection and the reduction of animal experimentation are intrinsically linked. As such, the legislation is based on one of the Three Rs principles (reduction), but there is scope for debate over what constitutes “strict necessity”. 

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no indication or evidence of financial or human resource available to develop policy and legislation relevant to this indicator.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Infringement of the relevant provisions in Law 88-08 and in the Penal Code is punishable by fines and/or imprisonment under Articles 415, 449 and 457 of the Penal Code.

D

Protecting the welfare of wild animals

There is legislation with partial application

There are a number of laws that apply to wild animals in Algeria introduced from a hunting or conservation perspective. Law 03-10 of July 2003 is the main environmental protection law, which includes prohibitions on destroying, capturing and trafficking certain species.

Law 04-07 of August 2004 regulates hunting. It specifies the administrative conditions by which a hunting licence can be obtained and also regulates issues related to hunting by tourists. Hunting is permitted with restrictions regarding time, location and protected species.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The legislation relating to wild animals is designed to avoid species destruction, to protect certain species and to regulate hunting activities. Regulations on tourist hunting in particular illustrate this point. There is no emphasis on the welfare of individual animals.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The government has identified the need to preserve biodiversity by protecting certain species of animal. The government is encouraged to consider introducing legislation to protect the welfare of wild animals.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

Infringement of the prohibitions in Law 03-10 and Law 04-07 is punishable with fines and imprisonment.

Governance structures and systems

Governance structures and systems

This theme examines government commitment to improving animal protection. This includes whether there is allocation of responsibility, accountability and resources within government.

G

Government accountability for animal welfare

There is no policy or legislation

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has political control over activities relating to veterinary medicine and farmed animals. However, from the information publicly available, the protection of animals and advancement of animal welfare is not one of the stated aims of the Ministry. 

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There are no indications that the government has assigned responsibility for animal welfare issues to a specific government body.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

No responsibility is allocated for animal welfare within the government’s structure.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

Animal welfare standards

Animal welfare standards

This theme examines whether the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)’s animal welfare standards have been incorporated into law or policy, the extent of engagement with the OIE on animal welfare issues, and whether the government publishes reports on progress in improving animal welfare.

G

OIE animal welfare standards

There is no policy or legislation

All OIE standards have yet to be transposed into legislation and policy in the country.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

The OIE’s standards on animal welfare not only represent a consensual position achieved by countries represented in the organisation with regard to this subject matter, but also provide the necessary scientific background to produce sound policy and legislation on animal welfare.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Algeria is a member of the OIE and along with all other members of the organisation has supported the OIE’s animal welfare standards and guiding principles for animal welfare. The government is encouraged to incorporate the OIE’s standards and principles within policy and legislation.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator. 

D

Engagement with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

There is policy

The government shows some level of engagement with OIE initiatives. An OIE PVS evaluation mission has taken place in the country and there are a number of reports of interaction with the OIE, particularly on issues of reporting on animal health. The country has also recently hosted veterinary legislation conferences, aiding the development of veterinary regulations nationally and regionally.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is evidence of the government’s interest in interacting with the OIE, in particular on issues affecting animal health. The lack of legislative and policy production on the welfare standards, however, limits the possibilities for development of a framework in which animal welfare considerations are brought to decision-making tables. 

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

Algeria has engaged with OIE initiatives, which is perhaps an indication of some level of interest by the government in exploring how its policy and legislation might be developed in line with the country’s commitments as a member of the OIE.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

G

Reporting on progress

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence of policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

As the country does not have any targeted policy or legislation on which reports could be formulated, reporting activities are impossible to pursue. This does not appear to be a priority for government.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There are no enforcement mechanisms relevant to this indicator.

Providing humane education

Providing humane education

This theme examines whether issues of animal care and protection are included in the national education system at primary and secondary level, and comments on whether animal welfare issues such as humane handling form part of veterinary medicine education.

G

Education on animal care and protection

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence of policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

There is no evidence of policy or legislation relevant to this indicator. 

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

There is no evidence of policy development in this area, and animal welfare does not seem to have a high priority or visibility in society.

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Promoting communication and awareness

Promoting communication and awareness

This theme examines whether there is government consultation and engagement with relevant stakeholders on animal protection issues, such as the development of new legislation and policy and the licensing of scientific research using animals.

G

Consultation with stakeholders

There is no policy or legislation

There is no evidence of policy or legislation relevant to this indicator.

Are legal provisions effective in acknowledging animal welfare as a mainstream concern?

No publicly available official information was found relevant to this indicator. Information on the existence of charitable organisations dedicated to animal welfare or animal protection and animal sheltering is sparse.  

Are there economic and societal barriers to improving animal welfare in the country?

The country does not appear to have a structure of organisations that could support the government in the production of policy and legislation on animal protection and animal welfare. 

Are enforcement mechanisms in place in policy and legislation?

There is no policy or legislation relevant to this indicator. 

Countries Selected
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The Algerian economy is almost wholly reliant on exporting oil and gas, mainly to Europe and the US. It is expected that the economy will see growth in 2014, mainly from “a projected increase in gas exports”. The BMI forecasts real GDP growth in 2014 of 4.4% and the current account surplus to 2.1% of GDP in 2014. Domestically, the public sector has seen wage rises and there was a public investment programme, investing in “housing, road and railway construction”, from 2010-2014. A relaxation of credit conditions should stimulate private consumption, along with easing of inflations. In the longer term, the EIU forecasts real GDP growth to average 4.6% for the period 2012-30.

 

 

 

Date of information: 11/02/2014
Population 
38,481,705
GDP 
$207,955,103,846
GDP (PPP) 
$8,515
Education expenditure (% of GDP) 
4.3 (2008)